Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 15, issue 2
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The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach Throughout the Lifespan is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.
The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the functional capabilities and performance in children with visual impairment who live in a developing country. METHODS: This was a case-control study, including binocular and monocular visually impaired children and non-visually disabled controls aged between 4 and 12 years. All participants underwent a basic ophthalmic exam and caregivers answered the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). The results were compared among the groups with ANOVA. RESULTS: The sample included 35 children with visual disability (21 binocular and 14 monocular) and 23 age-matched controls. The groups did not differ in age, gender, and ethnicity.…For the functional skills scale, binocular impaired children had lower scores than children from the monocular group and controls in all three domains – self-care (59.6±33.0, P < 0.001), mobility (38.5±26.6, P < 0.001), and social function (61.0±28.2, P < 0.001). For the caregiver assistance scale, children from the binocular group presented lower scores in the self-care (64.7±29.6, P = 0.002), mobility (50.6±36.3, P < 0.001), and social function (65.9±33.4, P = 0.008) domains as compared to monocular and controls. Children with monocular visual disability presented very similar scores to controls (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Children with binocular visual impairment presented some degree of difficulty with everyday functioning whereas monocular visual impairment did not cause any limitation in function.
Keywords: Functional development, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, visual impairment, children
Abstract: This systematic review assessed four measurement properties of measures (instruments) used by researchers to assess adherence to caregiver facilitated therapeutic activities (CFTA) for children in published research. The measurement properties considered in this systematic review were dyadic considerations, interpretability, reliability, and validity of the instruments used to assess adherence or compliance. Two databases (http://www.pubmed.gov and EMBASE) were searched for studies that reported adherence or compliance to CFTA prescribed by physiotherapists or occupational therapists or speech and language therapists. Papers included in this review were those that studied children less than 18 years old and or their primary caregivers. Data…were extracted by the authors using a data extraction table adapted from the work of Bollen and colleagues (2014) and by rating the measurement properties of the adherence measures identified based on predefined rating criteria (see supplementary file and Table 1 respectively). The authors relied only on the published research articles and any associated published supplementary files/data . None of the 40 adherence instruments identified wholly fulfilled all the criteria of the four measurement properties assessed. The results of this systematic review show that the measures used by researchers for assessing adherence to CFTA generally lack validity, reliability, and dyadic considerations.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Restoration of functional mobility including gait and balance are fundamental to prosthetic rehabilitation in children with rotationplasty. The literature to characterize and investigate the correlation between postural balance and gait following rotationplasty are scarce. This study examines the characteristics of balance and prosthetic gait in a subject with rotationplasty and checks whether any association exists between them. METHODS: A 14-year-old boy with rotationplasty following Ewing’s sarcoma was fitted with a custom made prosthesis. Center of pressure (COP) measures using the HUMAC® Balance & Tilt System (CSMi, Stoughton, MA), temporal-spatial gait parameters, and energy expenditure measured…by a 10 meter walk test were recorded using the new and old prosthesis. A control subject was used for comparison. RESULTS: The stability score, path length, and average velocity of COP improved in a new prosthesis for both standing conditions. Gait parameters were improved and energy expenditure was marginally reduced with the new prosthesis. However, overall prosthetic gait was significantly different compared to the control subject. CONCLUSION: This subject-centric approach successfully improved balance, gait parameters, and energy expenditure by providing better alignment, fit, and comfort with a custom prosthesis.
Keywords: Balance, energy expenditure, gait, prosthesis, rotationplasty
Abstract: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an acute condition occurring mostly in children. Although affected patients can show a broad spectrum of symptoms, it is mainly characterized by the progressive onset of focal limb weakness, presenting over a period of hours to a week, with or without pain, and spinal cord gray matter involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is compelling evidence to support the role of viruses, in particular enteroviruses. Studies describing electrodiagnostic (EDX) abnormalities and long-term outcomes in AFM are limited. In this report, the clinical presentation, EDX and MRI findings, and long-term outcomes in three children with…AFM who presented with progressive and asymmetric weakness of the limbs are described. MRI showed a long segment cervicothoracic lesion with vertical expansion in all three cases. Patients do recover in time, but many continue to have permanent muscle weakness in the worst affected part(s), and complete recovery is rare. Follow-up of these three cases at 18 months demonstrated a partial recovery in the motor system.
Abstract: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) was used to treat lower extremity spasticity in an ambulatory 7-year-old girl with a history of a T10 spinal lipoma. The spasticity was the result of an AIS D spinal cord injury (SCI) suffered during untethering surgery at age 2 years. After SDR and a course of intensive inpatient rehabilitation, the patient’s gait improved markedly. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first published case of SDR as a treatment for spasticity in a patient with a spinal lipomatous malformation.
Abstract: This is a case of a 19-year-old male with a history of remote severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with an intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pump for dystonia management. Given concern for lack of efficacy despite increasing doses of ITB, his catheter was evaluated and found to be epidural rather than intrathecal. The baclofen dose was down-titrated and he underwent catheter revision. Post-op, his baclofen dose was up-titrated and complicated by significant behavioral changes including aggressive physical and verbal behaviors resulting in hospitalization. Work-up was negative for infection, new neurologic pathology, and epileptic activity. Psychiatric medications were adjusted but the behaviors persisted.…Due to concern that the increased baclofen dose was causing his mood instability, his pump was down-titrated. As the dosage decreased, the frequency of outbursts also decreased. Throughout these dose adjustments, his dystonia remained stable and overall functional status improved. This is one of the first cases demonstrating that ITB may exacerbate mood instability in patients with TBI.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with spinal cord injuries are often advised to continue oral baclofen during pregnancy to manage spasticity, though the potential for adverse events in neonates is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: Here, a case is described in which a male neonate with intrauterine baclofen exposure, born at 34 3/7 weeks via Cesarean section, demonstrated a two-minute episode of extensor posturing at fifteen minutes of life possibly concerning for baclofen withdrawal. His mother had taken baclofen 30 milligrams orally four times per day throughout pregnancy for management of spasticity associated with a remote cervical spinal cord…injury. Due to concern for possible withdrawal, the neonate was started on a baclofen taper beginning within hours of birth while evaluation for alterative etiologies was underway. Symptoms were monitored using the Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scale. The neonate tolerated the baclofen taper well and was successfully tapered off by the fourteenth day of life with full resolution of symptoms and no apparent neurologic deficits. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to assess the incidence of neonatal baclofen withdrawal with regard to maternal dosage and route of administration, and to determine the most appropriate monitoring and management protocols for the neonate.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Children and adolescents (<18 years old) who sustain a spinal cord injury (SCI) should ideally be managed in specialized rehabilitation services. This project aims to describe the organization of pediatric SCI in ten rehabilitation units in seven countries and to qualitatively explore psychosocial aspects of adolescents living with SCI. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional project is planned, using quantitative (web survey) and qualitative (interview) methods in ten rehabilitation units from Norway, Sweden, United States, Israel, PR China, Russia and Palestine. Individual interviews will be conducted with ≥20 adolescents aged 13–17 years at least 6 months’ post rehabilitation.…RESULTS: Units involved will be described and compared, according to funding, attachment to an acute SCI unit, catchment area, number of beds, admittance and discharge procedures, availability of services, staff/patient ratio, content and intensity of rehabilitation programs, length of stay, measurement methods, follow-up services, health promotion services, and pediatric SCI prevention acts. The semi-structured interview guide will include experiences from acute care and primary rehabilitation, daily life, school, contact with friends, leisure time activities, peers, physical and psychological health, and the adolescents’ plans for the future. CONCLUSION: Based on the present protocol, this project is likely to provide new insight and knowledge on pediatric SCI rehabilitation and increase the understanding of pediatric SCI in adolescents and their families internationally.