Journal of Pediatric Neurology - Volume 9, issue 1
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Journal of Pediatric Neurology is an English multidisciplinary peer-reviewed medical journal publishing articles in the fields of child neurology, pediatric neurosurgery, pediatric neuroradiology, child psychiatry and pediatric neuroscience.
Journal of Pediatric Neurology encourages submissions from authors throughout the world. The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews. The aim of the journal is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric neurology.
Abstract: Epilepsy is found to be frequently associated with many chromosomal disorders. We describe a 5-year-old boy with recurrent absence seizures, developmental delay, hypomelanosis of Ito, facial asymmetry and mild dysmorphic features that has tissue specific trisomy 7 mosaicism. We compare our patient with the long term surviving patients of mosaic trisomy 7 reported to date in the literature to highlight that epilepsy is a common feature in this chromosomal condition. The wide phenotypic variability of mosaic…trisomy 7 is described. We conclude that a combination of epilepsy and hypomelanosis of Ito in a patient should prompt a clinician to think of chromosomal mosaicism, such as mosaic trisomy 7.
Keywords: Trisomy 7, chromosomal mosaicism, seizures, epilepsy, hypomelanosis of Ito
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a necrotizing bacterial infection with protean manifestations. Skeletal TB accounts for 2–20% of all extra pulmonary cases in various studies and spinal TB is the most common form of skeletal involvement by TB (about half the cases of skeletal TB). It is predominantly a disease of the young adults. However, there is no exact data for its incidence in the pediatric population. Spinal TB is an unusual presentation before the age of 5…years. Here we report three different presentations of spinal TB presenting in the very early age.
Abstract: We report a 9-year-old boy with atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). He was admitted due to staring spells and cognitive deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) demonstrated bilaterally symmetrical, synchronous, frontal sharp-and-slow wave discharges in 80% of the record. Diazepam or midazolam administration during EEG recording attenuated the sharp-and-wave discharges, but revealed no periodic complexes. Magnetic resonance imaging delineated bilateral frontal T2-weighted hyperintense foci. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging indicated…bilaterally decreased glucose metabolism in frontal cortex. The other laboratory tests including measles antibody in cerebrospinal fluid and serum suggested no specific etiology. Interestingly, a month later, the previously detected sharp-and-slow wave discharges disappeared, and periodic slow-wave paroxysms appeared on EEG recording. Measles antibody titers showed seroconversion and confirmed the diagnosis of SSPE. The present case suggests that clinicians be cautious while excluding SSPE.
Keywords: SSPE, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, PET
Abstract: We report brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in three infants who had severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and presented later on with different neurological manifestations. Two children presented at 6~months of age with global developmental delay, dystonia and hearing impairment. The third child presented with developmental delay, nystagmus and superior gaze palsy at ten months of age. The history and clinical picture suggested sequelae of bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain…in all the patients revealed hyperintensity in bilateral globus pallidus on T2-weighted images. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient values were observed in the affected regions on diffusion-weighted imaging, which has not been reported previously.
Abstract: A female child with undiagnosed partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency suffered hyperammonemic coma after initiation of valproate for suspected seizures. Retrospective history and metabolic testing indicated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This case, along with previous reports in children and adults, demonstrates the importance of a focused history and consideration of appropriate metabolic testing prior to implementation of valproate therapy especially in female patients.
Abstract: Valproate associated hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare complication of valproate use, distinct from the more well-known valproate-induced hepatotoxicity with coma in young children, and the common finding of asymptomatic hyperammonemia associated with valproate use. We herein present a 21-month-old child with valproate associated hyperammonemic encephalopathy and discuss pertinent diagnostic and therapeutic issues for the pediatrician.
Abstract: A 13-year-old female child presented to us with enlargement of calf muscle of both lower limb and later diagnosed as hypothyroid myopathy i.e. Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne syndrome. She had extremely high levels of serum creatine phosphokinase. With thyroid replacement therapy, her creatine phosphokinase and myopathy resolved in 3 months.
Abstract: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually a monophasic disease that may follow many infections or vaccines. Neuroimaging plays a key role in the differential diagnosis of ADEM. We reported a female patient with ADEM mimicking a mass lesion in the pons. On physical examination, the patient was drowsy but there were no signs of meningeal irritation. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense signals on fluid attenuated inversion recovery and T2-weighted sequence over distal area of bilateral…mesencephalon and pons with involvement of cerebellar pedunculus. The patient was treated intravenous methylprednisolone for 3 days followed by oral prednisolone for another 7 days. The child remained ataxic for 20 days but recovered slowly following 4 months. At the 6th months of follow-up neurological findings of the patient completely recovered, physical examination was normal findings, and control magnetic resonance imaging scanning was also normal. It should be kept in mind that early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the ADEM could prevent serious neurological sequelae and it is important to make differential diagnosis with other demyelinating diseases and intracranial mass.
Keywords: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, child, cranial mass like lesion
Abstract: Jehovah's Witness (JW) is a religious Christian group whose members believe blood transfusion to be unholy and do not accept blood or its components, even if refusal of transfusion may prove to be life threatening. This belief is extended by them to their offspring too, despite the children being unaware of the implications of their parents' stand. A conflict arises between the parents' firm position against transfusion and the responsibility of the treating doctors towards the…safety of these children. It raises several ethical and medico-legal issues, besides requiring a modified treatment plan. While there are well-defined practice guidelines and legal directives on this subject in the west, there is a paucity of similar literature in many other countries including India leading to major transfusion related conflicts. The perioperative protocol for the surgical management of a JW patient is directed towards achieving bloodless surgery. An anemic child of JW parents underwent excision of an intracranial third ventricular mass without blood transfusion at our hospital. We present here our experience in managing this case using blood-saving surgical and anesthetic methods including a meticulous surgical technique and acute hypervolemic hemodilution.
Keywords: Child of Jehovah's Witness parents, neurosurgery, bloodless surgery, transfusion alternative strategies
Abstract: Back pain is often reported in children undergoing cancer treatment, but is not typically a presenting symptom. Spinal cord compression secondary to myeloid sarcoma (chloroma) has been described, although is rare in children. We describe a 10-year-old child who presented with thoracic back pain, which progressed quickly to complete paraplegia prior to the diagnosis of myeloid leukemia. Neuroimaging demonstrated an extradural mass at level T6 to T10, requiring emergent laminectomy and posterior decompression. Histopathology of…this lesion was consistent with myeloid sarcoma while peripheral blood and bone marrow examination documented acute myeloid leukemia. He underwent treatment with multiagent chemotherapy and remains in remission. Increased recognition of ominous symptoms that suggest underlying pathology or signs of cord compression will lead to earlier diagnosis and, ultimately, minimize neurologic morbidity.