Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 8, issue 4
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR N/A
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: To assess the prognostic value of core to peripheral temperature gradient and blood lactate levels in critically ill children and determine their correlation in terms of patient outcome. It is a prospective observational study conducted on 99 patients admitted in the pediatric emergency ward/ICU of Deptt. Of Pediatrics, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur. Children between ages of 6 months to 18 years with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score > 5 were included. ROC analysis and…multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyse the data. ROC curve analysis showed that core to peripheral temperature gradient and blood lactate levels had similar predictive values for increased risk of death (area under the curve, 0.852 and 0.825, respectively) with the best cut-off values of 3.4°C for core to peripheral temperature gradient and 44 mg/L for blood lactate levels. Among infants aged 6 months to 18 years, core to peripheral temperature gradient and blood lactate levels are good prognostic indicators in identifying critically ill children at increased risk of death.
Keywords: Core to peripheral temperature gap, blood lactate levels, children
Abstract: The antibiotic resistance or susceptibility patterns of common bacterial pathogens vary between geographical regions. We investigated the antibiotic resistance pattern of common uropathogens in a population of young children. In this cross- sectional retrospective study, children suspected of having urinary tract infection (UTI) that were referred to Taleghani Pediatric Hospital from March 2009 until March 2010 were included. Urine cultures were performed before initiation of antibiotics. Demographic information and results of cultures…and antibiograms were obtained from the laboratory archive. Cultures with colony count ⩾ 105 cfu/ml in midstream urine samples or any colony count in the suprapubic samples were considered to be positive. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. We evaluated 7844 urine cultures of which 153 (2%) were obtained from supra-pubic aspiration route. 3839 (48.9%) were male. In total, 533 (6.8%) of cultures were positive (64.2% were female). E. coli was the most common organism in positive samples in both sexes, but it was significantly more common in the females than males (83.3% vs. 75.4%, P < 0.05). E. coli showed the highest percentage of resistance to ampicillin (84.1%) and the lowest resistance to amikacin (11%). We found that E. coli was the predominant bacterial pathogen and that the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the different uropathogens were highly variable, emphasizing the importance of continuous surveillance of trends in resistance patterns of uropathogens.
Keywords: Drug resistance, anibiotics, urinary tract infection, children
Abstract: Infection with hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. The infection is transmitted through blood and sexual intercourse, as well as from mother to child during childbirth and breastfeeding. Prevention mainly involves sanitation measures and, most importantly, vaccination. This was a cross-sectional study of 200 children aged 6 to 18 months in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, who received three doses of a quintuple vaccine (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, and Haemophilus…influenzae type b Conjugate Vaccine Adsorbed). Post-vaccination blood samples were tested for immunity to hepatitis B (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B infection markers. Demographic data were collected using a questionnaire. The mean age of children was 9.8 ± 2.7 months, with a slight predominance of males (55%). 93.3% of children had detectable anti-HBs (⩾ 5 IU/L) in serum, and 90% had levels considered protective (⩾ 10 IU/L). HBsAg was found in 0.5% of children and anti-HBe and anti-HBc antibodies were found in 2.0% and 1.0% respectively. None of the children were HBeAg-positive. While the response to immunization was satisfactory, detection of HBsAg in one child does indicate that there are further opportunities to prevent mother- to-child transmission of the virus in Burkina Faso, such as vaccination at birth.
Keywords: HBV immunization, HBs antibody, immune and HBV infection status
Abstract: Aspergillosis is an uncommon diagnosis in neonates, especially if caused by Aspergillus flavus. Although amphotericin B remains the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis, Aspergillus flavus has been reported as being resistant to amphotericin B. We present here a case of a 24-week gestational age preterm infant who developed skin and invasive intestinal Aspergillus flavus infection after laparotomy for necrotizing enterocolitis. Aspergillus flavus was first isolated from the smear of the…umbilical stump at the third postoperative day. The initial response to antimycotic treatment with amphotericin B and caspofungin was not sufficient. Because of continued disseminated infection and multiple intra-abdominal abscesses with necrotic areas of the liver, a second surgical intervention was performed on the 24th day of life. Antimycotic therapy was continued for approximately 43 days so as to ensure clinical remission. No adverse events were observed. This case supports the importance of the combination of surgery and newer antimycotic drugs for the outcome of premature infants with invasive aspergillosis.
Abstract: A six and a half year old child presented with four months history of bilateral ptosis which was initially diagnosed as ocular myasthenia gravis after a positive edrophonium test and being treated accordingly. Over the course of time he developed headache with occasional vomiting, so referred to us for evaluation. Neurological examination revealed presence of mild bilateral ptosis with mid-dilated pupils sluggishly reacting to light and gait ataxia. There was complete sparing of other extra ocular…muscles. Ophthalmoscopy showed bilateral papilloedema. CT scan and later on MRI of brain pointed out multiple tuberculomas both at cortical and subcortical (including midbrain and cerebellum) level with obstructive hydrocephalus. Conservative therapy to decrease intracranial pressure was initiated soon along with antitubercular drugs, and response was found to be dramatic. Isolated bilateral ptosis as the initial presenting feature of multiple intracranial tuberculoma is very rare. Moreover tuberculoma of brain masquerading as ocular myasthenia with false positive edrophonium test is unique and hence reportable.
Abstract: Acute clavicular osteomyelitis is a rare disease, occurring in about 0–7% of all pediatric cases of osteomyelitis. The literature on the topic is sparse. Here we discuss a case of clavicular osteomyelitis and review previous case reports of acute clavicular osteomyelitis in children. In addition, we will review general management principles of osteomyelitis in children as they pertain to clavicular osteomyelitis.
Keywords: Acute clavicular osteomyelitis, children
Abstract: Dirofilaria (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) infections are vector-borne parasitic diseases of wild and domestic carnivores, mainly of dogs and cats. In Europe, mainly in Ukraine and the Mediterranean countries, they are caused by D. repens and D. immitis. The aim of our work is to describe the first autochthonous pediatric case of Dirofilaria repens infection in Poland. Our patient is the first one in the western part of Poland (52°24'N16°56'E). The diagnosis…of the parasite's species and the histopathological assessment of the altered tissue were based on the scrutiny of paraffin slides of the surgically removed subcutaneous nodule. The results were confirmed using PCR method. The origin of the boy's infection in Greater Poland remains unresolved. The new trend of spreading D. repens infection in many non-endemic countries cause that dirofilariosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules in children, in the whole Europe, not only in endemic areas.
Abstract: Acute septic arthritis in association with systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is uncommon and mostly caused by Gram positive bacteria. Escherichia coli (E coli) septic arthritis complicating lupus is extremely uncommon. The authors describe a case in a 10 year old Indian girl who had SLE with class II lupus nephritis and presented later with acute septic arthritis in her right knee. Although reported earlier in adult subjects, pediatric SLE complicated with E coli septic arthritis at…this young age, to the best of authors' knowledge has never been reported in world literature.
Keywords: Arthritis, septic, pediatric lupus, E coli