Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 1, issue 4
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR N/A
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: Interactions between bacteria that include antagonism (interference) and synergism maintain balance between members of the normal endogenous flora, and play a role in preventing colonization by potential pathogens. Bacteria with interference capability of potential respiratory pathogens include alpha-hemolytic streptococci, non-hemolytic streptococci, and Prevotella and Peptostreptococcus spp. The role of bacterial interference in the emergence of upper respiratory tract infections and its effect on their eradication is discussed. These infections include pharyngo-tonsillitis, otitis…media, and sinusitis. Treatment with antimicrobials can affect the balance between the interfering organisms and potential pathogens. Introduction into the indigenous microflora of low virulence bacterial strains that are capable of interfering with colonization and infection with virulent organisms has been used as a means of preventing the failure of antimicrobials in the treatment of pharyngo-tonsillitis and otitis media.
Abstract: Innate component of immunity is a skilful system that senses invading microbial pathogens and integrates to adaptive immunity by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Another function of TLRs is to work in sterile inflammation to ligands derived from damaged cells, which are not usually present in the extracellular environment. Thus, TLRs have very important interferences in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune diseases. The discovery of TLRs has transformed our approach to immunology and related diseases.
Abstract: Human meta-pneumovirus (hMPV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) may result in acute symptoms similar to those of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) LRTI. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that other viral LRTI, as RSV LRTI, will increase healthcare utilization and chronic respiratory morbidity in prematurely born infants. One hundred and twelve prematurely born infants were followed prospectively. Hospital admissions and general practitioner (GP) attendances were recorded and cough and wheeze…documented by diary card. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were obtained for every LRTI and analyzed to identify RSV (A and B), hMPV, RV, parainfluenza (1 and 2) and influenza (A and B) viruses. Eighty-four infants suffered 126 LRTIs; 94 viruses [41 RSV, 36 RV, seven hMPV, five parainfluenza (1, 2 or 3) and five influenza (A or B) viruses] were identified from 82 of the 126 NPAs. Compared to the no viral LRTI group, infants with only RSV infection had more (P=0.038) and longer (P=0.045) hospital admissions, more GP attendances (P=0.024), more cough (P=0.030) and wheeze at follow up (P=0.018). If infants with dual infections are also considered, however, infants with a hMPV LRTI, with or without other viral RNA being detected, compared to the no viral group, had more hospital admissions (P=0.005), longer admissions (P<0.001), more GP visits (P=0.029), more days of cough (P=0.008) and more days of wheeze (P=0.004). RSV and possibly hMPV, but not RV, LRTI increase healthcare utilization and respiratory morbidity in prematurely born infants.
Abstract: Although varicella is considered a common benign childhood infection, it accounts for significant morbidity and, in rare cases, may cause death. During the last years, a live attenuated vaccine is available, but has not been routinely incorporated into the vaccination program in Israel. In order to determine the magnitude of varicella complications and the epidemiology of the disease, we retrospectively studied records of 304 children with varicella hospitalized in a single medical center in Israel over…a six-year period. Mean age of the patients was 2 years and 9 months (range: 2 weeks-21 years), and mean hospital stay was 4.5 days. Two hundred thirty-three patients (77%) were otherwise healthy and 71 (23%) had an underlying disease. The majority of children (n=252, 83%) were hospitalized because of complications, mainly skin and soft tissue bacterial infections (n=142, 47%), followed by pneumonia or pneumonitis (n=56, 18%), gastrointestinal symptoms (n=44, 14%), and central nervous system complications (n=40, 13%), including febrile seizures (n=25, 8%). Thirty-four children (11%) were immunocompromised and were hospitalized mainly for intravenous acyclovir treatment. There were no varicella-related deaths. Varicella continues to cause substantial morbidity and poses a significant economic burden in Israel. Further studies are needed to examine the cost-effectiveness of varicella vaccination in Israel.
Abstract: Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection of the skin. It is a contagious condition particularly affecting children. In many instances, a topical antibacterial treatment is recommended to clear the disease. Topical antibiotics and antiseptics can be used, but the risk for antibiotic-induced bacterial resistance of the community-acquired type has been pointed out. The present study was undertaken as a randomized intra individual comparative trial between fusidic acid (FA) cream and povidone iodine (PVP-I) gel in 40…children suffering from impetigo. Cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus in the vast majority of the cases. The lesions present on each upper limb were treated twice daily with one or the other test formulation. Clinical assessments were performed twice weekly until cure. After one week, cure was obtained in 57.5% of the PVP-I-treated limbs compared to 32.5% of the FA-treated limbs. At the end of treatment cure was obtained first on the PVP-I treated sites in 67.5% of cases compared to 15% on the FA-treated sites. Clinical cure occurred simultaneously on both test sites in 17.5% of cases. In conclusion, PVP-I provided faster clinical cure than FA. Considering the treatment cost, the rising community-acquired staphylococci resistance to FA, and the results of the present study, PVP-I gel appears superior to FA cream in childhood impetigo.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different drug combinations for treatment of brucellosis in children. Sixty children (mean age 9.2 ± 3.1 years, range 10 months to 15 years) were treated with four different drug combinations. The diagnosis of brucellosis was established by positive serum agglutination titer, and/or the isolation of Brucella species from blood cultures. The most frequent findings were fever and arthritis in 12 (20% and 13 (21.6%) patients…respectively. The children under 8 years old comprised Group 1 and 2, and older than 8 years comprised Group 3 and 4 according to treatment regimens. Nine patients (Group 1) were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for 45 days plus ceftriaxone for 5 days and, rest nine patients (Group 2) were managed with TMP-SMZ for 45 days plus gentamicin for 5 days. Twenty-one patients (Group 3) were managed with doxycycline for 45 days and ceftriaxone for 5 days and, other 21 (Group 4) patients were managed with doxycycline for 45 days and gentamicin for 5 days. All patients recovered. Relapse and improvement rates were similar for all groups (P>0.05). Each regimen was effective in the treatment of childhood brucellosis. Using cheaper drugs such as doxycycline and gentamicin in children 8 years of age and older, and TMP-SMZ and gentamicin in children 7 years of age or younger for the treatment of brucellosis in children is a practical and useful approach in our region and in the developing countries.
Abstract: Hemolytic uremic syndrome induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae is the second most common cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome. This case report details a child who was diagnosed with pneumococcal induced hemolytic uremic syndrome on a polymerase chain reaction sample only. No pathogens were isolated from any other medium. The isolation of S. pneumoniae made a significant impact on the clinical management of the child. This report emphasizes the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a molecular biological…technique for the detection of streptococcal infection.
Abstract: Although varicella acquired during childhood normally has a benign course, complications may occur during the course of the disease. Cellulitis sometimes occurs as a result of bacterial superinfection. When caused by A-group Streptococci cellulitis may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis leading to necrosis of deep tissues. We have found treatment using parenteral antibiotics, intensive supplementary therapy and surgical debridement of necrotic tissues to be effective. A case of Staphylococcal necrotizing fasciitis in a…neonate is reported.