Authors: Hauser, Robert A. | Kremens, Daniel E. | Elmer, Lawrence W. | Kreitzman, David L. | Walsh, Ryan R. | Johnson, Reed | Howard, Robert | Nguyen, Jack T. | Patni, Rajiv
Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients using levodopa commonly develop dyskinesia and OFF episodes that reduce quality of life. Objective: Evaluate prevalence of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF through the day, assessed by 30-minute intervals, as well as the mean number and duration of troublesome dyskinesia and OFF episodes, transitions between PD states, and effects of Gocovri® (amantadine) extended release capsules on these episodes. Methods: Evaluate diary data from pooled Gocovri phase 3, placebo-controlled trials—analyzed for 17 hours following wake-up—at baseline and week 12. Results: Diaries were evaluable for 162 patients. At baseline, 67% of
…patients woke up OFF, with prevalence decreasing to 13% at 2 hours and then remaining relatively steady at ∼12% (range, 6–17%) across half-hour intervals thereafter. Troublesome dyskinesia prevalence rose steadily from 5% to 24% over the first 2 hours, then fluctuated between 20% and 44% through the rest of the waking day. At baseline, patients experienced a mean of 3.0 daily episodes of troublesome dyskinesia (average duration 2.0 hours each), and 2.2 daily episodes of OFF (average duration 1.1 hour each). At week 12, Gocovri-treated patients showed greater reductions than placebo in troublesome dyskinesia and OFF episodes per day (treatment difference: –1.0 episodes and –0.4 episodes, respectively) and average episode duration (treatment difference: –0.6 hours and –0.3 hours, respectively). Mean duration of individual episodes of ON without troublesome dyskinesia (Good ON) increased by 5.0 hours for Gocovri, compared with 2.0 hours for placebo. Patients taking Gocovri experienced 2.2 fewer transitions between states than patients taking placebo. Conclusions: Troublesome dyskinesia and OFF occurred in the morning and throughout the waking day. Gocovri-treated patients experienced fewer, shorter episodes of both troublesome dyskinesia and OFF, thereby increasing the duration of continuous Good ON episodes and reducing the frequency of transitions between motor states.
Keywords: Amantadine, delayed-action preparations, double-blind method, dyskinesias, OFF, episodes, humans, levodopa, Parkinson disease, transitions, treatment
Citation: Journal of Parkinson's Disease,
vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 591-600, 2019