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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oxidation is a deteriorating process in foods that affects sensorial quality and nutritional value. As a result, there has been a tendency to develop and consume functional antioxidant foods which delay oxidative processes. Anthocyanins are polyphenols which have been associated with high antioxidant activity. OBJECTIVE: To study the protection effect of corozo and grape extract with high anthocyanin content, on the oxidation time of yogurt. METHODS: Colorimetric and fluorimetric assays were used to determine anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity in the extracts over time. For the yogurt, total phenol content was evaluated and antioxidant capacity…by ABTS and ORAC. Also, the pH and color parameters (CIELAB - L*a*b*) were determined for the extracts and the yogurt. Finally, the oxidation of lipids and proteins in the yogurt were determined. RESULTS: A mixture of extracts from corozo and grape had good oxidative stability during the first month of study. There was also protection from oxidation in proteins and lipids during the 21 days of study in a yogurt prepared with the mixture of extracts. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts prepared from corozo and grape are adequate to be used as protectors of oxidation of macromolecules in yogurt.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The worldwide tendency for growing raspberries in different climatic environments demands the need of development new cultivars with good adaptability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to study the adaptability of red raspberry selections for tropical conditions. RESULTS: Days to flowering, days from flowering to first pick, days to first pick, and days from transplanting to last pick were from 135 to 183 days, 22 to 49 days, 163 to 222.3 days, 250.0 to 299.5 days, respectively. Harvest period varied among genotypes, and the genotypes S.39 and S.27 had the…longest harvest period and the highest marketable yields, evidencing their good adaptability to tropical conditions. Berry weight varied from 2.74 to 5.37 g, suggesting that the studied selections produced fruits with small and intermedium size. In addition, these results indicated that such genotypes might be suitable for fruit exportation to different international markets. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the adaptability of certain genotypes such as S.39 and S.27 at a tropical environment, which might be a good option for raspberry growers producing for fresh consumption.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Charcoal rot of strawberry (Macrophomina phaseolina ) is an emerging disease difficult to manage, a desirable alternative is the use of resistant cultivars. However, little is known regarding the reaction of cultivars to the pathogen under water stress conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this work were to study the effect of water stress on the physiology of four strawberry cultivars during the infection, and to determine the relationship between water stress and cultivar susceptibility. METHODS: Healthy and inoculated plants of ‘Monterey’, ‘Albion’, ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Sabrina’ were maintained under no irrigation and full…irrigation regimes, in greenhouse conditions. Stem water potential (SWP) and stomatal conductance (gs) were evaluated. The disease severity was recorded weekly for seven weeks. RESULTS: The disease detrimentally affected the water relations in ‘Sabrina’, ‘Albion’ and ‘Monterey’. A significant correlation was detected between the evaluated parameters and the disease severity. The disease severity increases in plants with no irrigation, regardless of cultivar. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the infection caused by M. phaseolina increases the negative effects of water stress, depending on the genotype, and that the cultivars that were able to maintain more stable water relations respond better to the disease.
Keywords: Crown and root rot, water restriction, biotic stress, abiotic stress, biotic-abiotic stresses combination
Abstract: Fruit berries are one of the most effective source of bioactive food ingredients with multiple health benefits when consumed regularly. Phalsa fruit (Grewia asiatica L.) a native to the Himalayan region grows equally well in tropical areas of the world yet unexplored with regards to its immense nutritional benefits. The phalsa seed, fruit, and pulp contain numerous functional phytochemicals that can be used to treat various diseases, and have be found to be highly effective in improving respiratory and cardiac functioning. Its cultivation has been limited to subsistence cultivation and it is sold in the form of raw fruit…mostly. There are certain challenges as regards to its perishable nature of the berry fruit, and the optimization of the crop yield. Therefore, this comprehensive review is designed to highlight its economic and nutritional potential for the food and beverage industry as an effective source of bioactive functional food/beverage ingredients. Further potential area of research and developments have been identified for the subsequent authentication of health effects of phalsa berry fruit. Moreover, issues related to value addition in food product development have been explained along with proposed solutions.
Keywords: Phalsa, bioactive compounds, health benefits, processing challenges, anthocyanins
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Yerba-mate (YM) and blackcurrant (BC) are rich in polyphenols and anthocyanins with proven health benefits therefore they could be used in functional beverage preparation. OBJECTIVE: To (a) develop a palatable powdered beverage with high physicochemical and nutritional quality using YM/BC, (b) determine the effect of in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion on antioxidant content and activity and (c) evaluate beverage’s acceptance temporal changes and dynamic profile during multiple intakes. METHODS: We determined powder’s water-activity (aw), moisture content, flowability, micro-morphology, color, cold water solubility, glass-transition temperature (Tg), total polyphenols (TP)/anthocyanins (MAC) and ascorbic-acid contents, antiradical activity (DPPH).…RESULTS: Powder’s aw (0.089) ensured biochemical/microbiological stability. Tg(55.64°C) indicated that YM/BC’s vacuum-storage at 20–25 °C was possible without losing glassy state. Powder’s cold water’s solubility was 90%. 1 L (60 g/L) provided 556.8 mg TP/198.11 mg monomeric-anthocyanins. Ascorbic- acid dose was half the recommended daily intake. In-vitro gastrointestinal digestion reduced total polyphenols/monomeric-anthocyanins 59–70 %, but antiradical activity losses were 9%. Overall-acceptance and Time-Intensity curves results were in the Hedonic scale’s “Like moderately to like very much” zone. Berries/Sweet were the only dominant attributes Astringency accumulative effects not detected. CONCLUSIONS: The YM/BC powder had good physical/biochemical/microbiological stability under industrial storage conditions and high antiradical activity after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Sensory scores suggested that consumer’s acceptance could be high.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice is a highly-valued beverage that has been demonstrated to have large quantities of polyphenolic compounds with powerful antioxidant properties. Currently there is limited information related to other components of the juices of USDA germplasm. OBJECTIVE: Preselected pomegranate germplasm was evaluated to identify unique cultivars with consumer-friendly traits and to select candidates that meet or exceed juice quality parameters of ‘Wonderful’ juice. METHODS Juices from 14 cultivars and commercial pomegranate juice were analyzed using a variety of methods. Juice quality was determined by measuring pH, titratable acidity, citrate, malate, total…soluble solids, maturity index, glucose, fructose, γ -Aminobutyric acid (GABA), antioxidant activity, total phenolics, potassium, glutamate, glutamine, and ethanol. RESULTS Candidate cultivars meeting ‘Wonderful’ juice quality specifications and nutritional profile were identified as were candidates with desirable traits not seen in ‘Wonderful’. There were significant differences among cultivars in pH, titratable acidity, citrate, malate, total soluble solids, maturity index, glucose, fructose, GABA, potassium, glutamate, glutamine, and ethanol. There was no evidence for differences in antioxidant activity and total phenolics of juices among cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: Pomegranate cultivars other than ‘Wonderful’ could provide a broader palette of flavors for the consumer, but more research is needed to determine commercial potential of USDA germplasm.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Raspberry breeding programs allowed the development of highly yielding cultivars, but often resulted in a reduction of plant plasticity and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves and fruit may play a crucial role in overcoming these shortcomings, influencing host performance and health status. OBJECTIVE: The bacterial community associated to two red-fleshed (“Imara” and “Regina”) and one white-fleshed (“Anne”) raspberry varieties was described. The bacterial community was functionally characterized to identify strains with plant growth promoting or plant protection traits. METHODS: Microbial community was assessed using both culture-independent and -dependent…methods. Strains were tested for production of acetoin, siderophores, indoleacetic acid and ammonia, ACC deaminase activity, biofilm formation, biological control of Erwinia amylovora , Botrytis cinerea or Drosophila suzukii . RESULTS: The fruit bacterial community clearly differed between red-and white-fleshed raspberry. Thirteen isolates produced plant growth and resistance promoting substances, while twelve bacterial isolates were able to manipulate either auxin or ethylene metabolism. Five strains inhibited the growth of Erwinia amylovora and Botrytis cinerea , and one increased Drososphila suzukii mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers new insights for the biotechnological exploitation of bacteria isolated from raspberry.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: New sweet cherries rootstocks and cultivars can be valorized on the market if they express improved plant yield efficiency and fruit quality, and also including highest content of antioxidant compounds (mainly anthocyanins but also significant amounts of phenolic acids and flavonols). OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare the effect of 10 new rootstock genotypes, now available for cherry, on plant growth and fruit quality of the cultivar “Sweetheart”, a very late auto-fertile sweet cherry cultivar. METHODS: Plants vegetative and productive parameters, as well as fruit sensorial quality, were measured during a 5-year…cycle (2011–2015), while fruit nutritional quality was investigated for the last 3 years (2013–2015). RESULTS: For the agronomical traits, the vigorous rootstock Adara/Major and intermediate Gisela 6 stands out for the plant yield. From the qualitative point of view, the intermediate MaxMa 14 and Gisela 6, and the dwarf Gisela 5, differed for reduced fruit size but with optimal sugar/acid ratio. The higher fruit nutritional value were detected for “Sweetheart” trees grafted on Adara/Major (vigorous), the best MaxMa 14 (weaker) and Gisela 5 (dwarfing) rootstocks. CONCLUSIONS: There is not a univocal combination between the scion and rootstock equally valid for all the considered parameters. The rootstock capable of ensuring good yields, sensorial and nutritional quality is Adara/Major. From the productive and qualitative point of view, Gisela 6 is well adapted to these conditions, while MaxMa 14 rootstock stands out for nutritional quality, although induces a high reduction of vigor, poor vegetative renewal and low average fruit weight.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berry pomaces contain biologically active substances and therefore may have considerable potential applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. However, there is a lack of studies on extracting these valuable products from berry pomaces. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate major constituents of five Vaccinium spp. berry pomace extracts and investigate their antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective properties. METHODS: Total anthocyanin, procyanidin and polyphenol contents in berry residues were measured by spectrophotometric pH-differential, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde and Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. Identification and quantification of separate compounds were assessed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-masspectroscopy. Anti-hyperglycaemic properties of…pomace extracts were evaluated based on inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase activity. Extract hepatoprotective effects were estimated based on increased human hepatic cell line HepG2 viability in oxidative stress conditions. RESULTS: The extracts possessed strong antioxidant effects and efficacy for inhibiting the activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion and for protecting hepatic cells from oxidative damage. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatoprotective and hypoglycaemic properties of berry pomace extracts may be due to the presence of active polyphenols and their synergistic effects. Our results support the use of berry pomaces for designing standardised formulations for the prevention of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blackberry fruits have recently gained attention because of their considerable amounts of polyphenols. OBJETIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the physicochemical composition and contents of the main polyphenolic compounds of nine tropical highland blackberry genotypes grown in Costa Rica, and to evaluate the effect of environmental conditions and farming practices on physicochemical composition of fruits of ‘Wine red thorn’, which is the most widely grown blackberry genotype in Costa Rica. METHODS: Nine blackberry genotypes were harvested at fully ripe stage. Environmental conditions (geographic location and harvest season) and farming practices (organic and…conventional techniques) were evaluated to determine their effects on physicochemical composition and polyphenolic compounds of ‘Wine red thorn’ blackberries. Anthocyanins and ellagitannins contents were determined by HPLC-DAD. RESULTS: The tropical highland blackberries contained appreciable levels of polyphenols. Anthocyanin content ranged from 2.9±0.1 to 12±1 g cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/kg dry weight (DW); ellagitannin content ranged from 9.3±0.8 to 47±3 g ellagic acid equivalents/kg DW. The influence of environmental conditions and farming practices on physicochemical characteristics of ‘Wine red thorn’ blackberries was significant (p < 0.05). Blackberries harvested during the dry season had higher contents of sugars and anthocyanins than blackberries harvested during the rainy season. Organic blackberries had higher levels of ellagitannins than conventionally grown fruits. CONCLUSIONS: These data prove that Costa Rican blackberries are a good source of polyphenolic compounds, especially ellagitannins. Environmental and farming conditions can be exploited to obtain high quality blackberry fruits.