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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: This review provides an overview of existing literature on the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and abscisic acid (ABA) on physiological and biochemical aspects affecting grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) growth, maturation and their quality for winemaking. The UV-B (280–315 nm) comprises only a small fraction of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface, but has enough energy to cause large photobiological effects on higher plants. The UV-B levels are greater in the tropics than in upper latitudes and also increase with altitude, hence some vineyards are exposed to high UV-B but photoprotection and repair mechanisms are usually sufficient to prevent…the occurrence of damage in grapevine tissues. ABA is a phytohormone that, aside to control stomatal aperture, regulates acclimation to adverse environmental conditions, and controls grape berry maturation (non-climacteric). A promotive effect of UV-B on ABA biosynthesis has been found in grapevine leaves. Accumulation of phenols (namely phenolic acids, stilbenes and flavonoids) is an acclimation and protective response against UV-B, either directly by absorbing UV-B in epidermal tissues and/or by reducing its penetration through underlying tissues, or indirectly by scavenging free radicals so acting as antioxidants. High UV-B and ABA applications increase total phenols in grape berries, but those with higher antioxidant capacity (i.e. dihydroxylated anthocyanidins and flavonols like quercetin) are increased relatively more. These treatments also hasten berry sugar and phenol accumulation, but reduce berry growth and sugar per berry at harvest, and therefore decrease yield. The quality of grape berries for winemaking integrates various aspects, but for red wines, it has a high correlation with accumulation of phenolics stimulated by UV-B and ABA.
Abstract: The profile of phenolic compounds in strawberry fruits varies significantly among cultivars. High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection with positive and negative modes of ionization was employed to identify phenolic compounds in extract of strawberries from Charlotte cultivar. This is the first time phenolic profile of Charlotte cultivar has been characterized. The fruits contained phenolics belonging to six groups: anthocyanins, ellagic acid and its conjugates, gallotannins, flavonols, flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The presence of pentagalloyl glucose in strawberries fruits was reported for the first time.
Keywords: Strawberries, phenolic compounds, Charlotte cultivar, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS
Abstract: The rotating cross-arm (RCA) technology combines a unique trellis design and cane training protocol. Developed over the last two decades, this technology is beginning to have an impact on the blackberry (Genus Rubus, subgenus Rubus) industry in the United States (US). It has been successfully transferred to growers in more than 21 states in the last two years and contributed to increasing the blackberry acreage by about ~100 ha in the eastern US. Our research and development effort on the RCA technology has shown that 1) winter injury can be reduced by modifying the crop environment and production techniques, 2)…white drupe formation can be reduced when fruit is positioned away from direct sunlight, and 3) harvest efficiency is improved when the fruit positioned on one side of the row. Our research has also shown that RCA technology can be used to generate several times more one-node floricane cuttings and long-cane plants than traditional propagation methods. The enclosure technique improved rooting of some cultivars, but there were recalcitrant cultivars like ‘Apache’. Auxin analyses suggested a possible link between IAA concentrations and root induction in floricane cuttings. Consistent production of blackberries was achieved in areas with minimum winter temperatures below −20°C with the RCA technology. This technology allows the canes to be positioned close to the ground in winter and covered with a floating rowcover. An unexpected result of this winter protection system was some leaves on the floricane remained green throughout the spring and were photosynthetically functional in spring.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Today, due to its nutritive value, black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) is consumed both as fresh and in processed forms. OBJECTIVE: In order to investigate the health-related constituents of black mulberry products, total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity and major phenolic compounds were determined for different products including fresh mulberry, dried mulberry, mulberry wine, molasses, ice cream, juice, jam and syrup. METHODS: Samples were obtained as three replicates, and total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometric methods, whereas major phenolic compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector. RESULTS:…In analyzed samples, chlorogenic acid, rutin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were confirmed as the major phenolic acid, flavonol and anthocyanin, respectively. In general, fresh mulberry showed higher contents of total phenolics (0.49–57 fold higher), flavonoids (0.02–162 fold higher), anthocyanins (6-12209 fold higher) and antioxidant capacity (0.72–691 fold higher) compared to other products. Total flavonoids and phenolics showed a linear relationship with antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC: R2 = 0.9070 and R2 = 0.8959, respectively), indicating that flavonoids and phenolics were the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide valuable insights into the biochemical composition of black mulberry and how this may change during fruit processing.
Keywords: Black mulberry (Morus nigra L.), phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, antioxidant, HPLC
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Annually, the EU processes ~750 000 M tonnes of black currants to juice with a substantial production of waste material. This pomace is currently disposed but could be exploited as a source of polyphenol antioxidants, bioactive components and flavour components. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the amount and composition of polyphenol components extractable from black currant residues, with a focus on anthocyanin components. METHODS: Polyphenol levels in laboratory derived juice, successive water-extracts and methanol-extracts of black currants were compared. Similar extractions were carried out on commercial black currant pomace. Differences in polyphenol composition were examined using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry…analysis. RESULTS: Extracts obtained with methanol after juice removal and water washing had considerably higher anthocyanin content and a higher proportion of anthocyanidin glucosides. The methanol extracts also contained putative C-C linked anthocyanin dimers not previously identified in berries. Similar ethanol extraction of commercial pomace also released an anthocyanin-rich fraction with elevated levels of anthocyanidin glucosides. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential alcohol extraction of black currant residues produced anthocyanin-rich fractions which contained components that may be tightly bound to the residues. These included putative anthocyanin dimers. Compositional differences in extracts from laboratory residues and commercial pomace may be related to the use of cell-wall-lyzing enzymes during juicing.
Keywords: Anthocyanins, black currant, juice, polyphenols, processing, pomace