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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: Metabolomics, one of the most recent additions to the systems biology toolkit, has been used to study the metabolism and physiology of living organisms. In the field of food research, metabolomics has lately gained popularity as a technique for determining the quality, processing, and safety of raw materials and final food products, as well as for identifying biomarkers linked to food intake and disease. This review aimed to provide an overview of the current understanding of the analytical techniques used for metabolomics and their application to berries with a special emphasis on the in vivo studies. Specifically, identification of…biomarkers of biological activity and in vivo metabolites of berries using metabolomics approach is covered.
Keywords: Metabolomics, LC-MS, polyphenols, gut microbiota
Abstract: Fruits and seeds are naturally rich in antioxidants, which provide protection against UV light and oxygen. Vitamin E is a typical antioxidant, and offers radical scavenging activity to prevent the oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes, contribute to homeostasis, and support the biological functions of animals and plants. Tocopherol and tocotrienol are forms of vitamin E widely found in natural products. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the existence of minor homologues, namely tocomonoenol and tocodienol. The characteristic physiological functions of vitamin E homologues are dependent on their structure. Consequently, the nutritional functionality of the minor homologues…has attracted much research interest, which relies on highly accurate analytical methods. This review aimed to summarize the literature concerning the diversity of tocomonoenol and tocodienol, as well as reports on the various methods for their analysis and detection in different sample matrices. This paper is expected to contribute to future exploratory research and the functional evaluation of minor homologues.
Keywords: Tocochromanol, tocodienol, tocomonoenol, tocopherol, tocotrienol, vitamin E
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as basis for winemaking is one of the most economically important plants in modern agriculture. As requirements in viticulture are increasing due to changing environments, terroir and pests, classical agriculture techniques reach their limits. OBJECTIVE: We summarize the impact of modern “omics” technologies on modern grapevine breeding and cultivation, as well as for dealing with challenges in viniculture caused by environmental or terroir changes and pests and diseases. In this review, we give an overview on current research on the influence of “omics” technologies on modern viticulture. RESULTS: Considerable advances…in bioinformatics and analytical techniques such as next generation sequencing or mass spectrometry fueled new molecular biological studies. Modern “omics” technologies such as “genomics”, “transcriptomics”, “proteomics” and “metabolomics” allow the investigation on a large-scale data basis and the identification of key markers. Holistic understanding of genes, proteins and metabolites in combination with external biotic and abiotic factors improves vine and wine quality. CONCLUSION: The rapid evolution in wine quality was only enabled by the progress of modern biotechnological methods developing enology from a handcraft to science.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are one of the key factors contributing to the quality and biological activities in various berries. Particular attention was devoted to Vaccinium L. berries, because of being commonly consumed in daily life and providing a large potential for the development of new pharmaceutical applications. OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed at establishing a novel UPLC-PDA method for profiling anthocyanins in berries and evaluating their distribution in cultivated lingonberries. METHODS: The method was developed and validated using bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) matrices. Anthocyanins…content variation was analyzed among 7 different cultivars and 1 infraspecific taxon of lingonberries. RESULTS: The proposed method ensured the separation of 20 compounds, including major and minor anthocyanins and their aglycones, in bilberries, 15 in cranberries, and 9 in lingonberries, during 12 min analysis. Bilberry matrix was distinguished by the most complex profile and the presence of delphinidin and petunidin, which were not identified either in cranberries or lingonberries. Cranberry anthocyanins consisted mainly of the 3-galactosides of cyanidin and peonidin, whereas lingonberry anthocyanins included cyanidin and its glycosides with just traces of other anthocyanins. Obtained anthocyanins fingerprinting results have guidance function in practice and demonstrate valuable chemophenetic information for studied Vaccinium berries. All determined method validation values were considered to be acceptable. Variation analysis of anthocyanins levels among cultivated lingonberries suggested genetic diversity and because of the highest anthocyanins content—the superiority of Russian cultivars (‘Kostromička’ and ‘Rubin’). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the anthocyanins of certain lingonberry cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: This study resulted in the rapid, simple, and validated method, which was shown to be applicable and convenient for routine analysis and authentication of Vaccinium berry samples.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the onset and progression of various diseases and the role of antioxidants in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases has received much attention. The action and effect of antioxidants have been studied extensively under different reaction conditions in multiple media. The antioxidant effects are determined by many factors. This review aims to discuss several important issues that should be considered for determination of experimental conditions and interpretation of experimental results in order to understand the beneficial effects and limit of antioxidants against detrimental oxidation of biological molecules. Emphasis was…laid on cell culture experiments and effects of diversity of multiple oxidants on antioxidant efficacy.
Keywords: Antioxidant, cell culture medium, oxygen concentration, reactive oxygen species
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of the fruit of Lycium rhutenicum (black goji) have been linked to their polyphenolic profile. OBJECTIVE: Systematic examination of the extraction efficiency of polyphenols from cultivated black goji from Macedonia was carried out using 25 different solvent mixtures containing methanol, acetone or water combined with different acids (hydrochloric, acetic, citric and ascorbic acid). METHODS: An HPLC/DAD/MSn method was used for identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins and also spermines and spermidines. RESULTS: The extraction solvent composition was found to have a significant effect on…the yield of total as well as specific polyphenols. Pure methanol was found to be more efficient solvent for extraction of total phenolic compounds than pure water or acetone. Ascorbic acid in methanol (2%, m/v) was found to be the most efficient extraction solvent for total phenolic compounds. Aqueous solutions of citric and ascorbic acid gave the highest yield of phenolic acids, spermidines and flavonoids. The anthocyanin content in these extracts was somewhat lower in comparison with the one obtained with methanol/water/ascorbic acid (70 : 28 : 2). The qualitative analysis of the fruits cultivated in Macedonia showed similar polyphenolic pattern and anthocyanin content to the native plant growing in China. CONCLUSIONS: Citric and ascorbic acid can be used as alternative acid components in the extraction mixture.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum ), the species primarily grown in the state of Washington, U.S., is relatively cold hardy. However, low temperatures in winter and early spring can still cause freeze damage to the buds. OBJECTIVE: This study explored hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for detecting freeze induced bud damage. Blueberry buds (c.v. Duke) were collected over two seasons and tested in the laboratory to detect damage at four typical phenological stages. METHODS: The HSI data was acquired via line scan HSI system with spectral wavelength ranging from 517 to 1729 nm for buds grouped into either normal…or injured mortalities. The successive projection algorithm was employed for pertinent feature wavelength selection. Analysis of variance and linear regression were then applied for evaluating sensitivity of feature wavelengths. RESULTS: Overall, five salient wavelengths (706, 723, 872, 1384, and 1591 nm) were selected to detect bud freeze injury. A quadratic discriminant analysis method-based analysis verified reliability of these five wavelengths in bud damage detection with overall accuracy in the ranges of 64 to 82%for the test datasets of each stage in two seasons. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated potential of optical sensing to identify the injured buds using five salient wavelengths.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Blueberries contain large amounts of phenolic compounds as well as a higher concentration of anthocyanins than other berries. The peel of these fruits contains most of the anthocyanins and therefore pomace is left with the largest quantity of valuable phenolic compounds. Extraction is the most critical step to obtain such compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to optimize the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds from blueberry pomace by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). METHODS: A Pareto chart was used to confirm the factor with the highest impact, response surface for analyzing the effect…of extraction conditions on total phenol content (TPC) (through Folin-Ciocalteu), total anthocyanin content (TAC) (through differential pH), antioxidant capacity (AC) (through DPPH assay) and the Box-Behnken matrix to determine the optimal conditions for marc extraction with each method. RESULTS: Ethanol concentration is an impact factor for both methods, as well as irradiation method, radiation power for MAE and temperature for SLE. Regarding SLE and MAE extraction, under optimal conditions, a TCP content of 335.95 and 426.19 (mg GAE/100 g), TAC 272.69 and 389.64 (mg Cyn-3-glu/100 g), and CA 528.96 and 654.11 (mg TE/100 g) was obtained, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of phenolic compound extraction via MAE method is better than that of SLE.