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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, the solar radiation received is very high for many tree species over several hours of the day during the summer. Using a photoselective net can improve the climatic conditions and also modify the quality of light received. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the colour of photoselective nets on the yield and quality of Actinidia chinensis . MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in Southern Italy on an orchard of Jintao kiwifruit. Photoselective nets of different colours were used: black, red, yellow, white, and grey. The resulting fruits…were compared to those of plants in the open field. A randomised block design was adopted. Environmental, vegetative, leaf gas exchange parameter, yield, and fruit quality were defined. All data were analysed using the Variance Analysis (ANOVA) and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Photoselectivity influenced production. The best results were obtained under the red net in terms of production and fertility indices. Fruit size, maturation indices, and nutraceutical parameters were also higher under the red net. Among the nets, the grey net induced the worst tree productivity results and the worst fruit quality parameters. However, all nets showed better results compared to the open field. CONCLUSION: The photoselective net strongly influenced the yield and quality of Jintao kiwifruit and the better results compared to the open field. The red net proved to be the best performer for the environment where the experiment was carried out.
Keywords: Actinidia chinensis, maturation indices, photoselective net
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bet v 1 family identified as one major plant food allergen class, is highly homologous to pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR-10), but its biological function involved in disease resistance is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether Bet v 1 potential allergens participate in the resistance of berry crops against fungal pathogen. METHODS: Allergenicity of Bet v 1 proteins in strawberry (Fragaria ) was evaluated by bioinformatics methods. Their expression in response to anthracnose and between susceptible and resistance varieties was analyzed. RESULTS: 19 Bet v 1 homologous proteins were identified and…15 of them were considered as allergen candidates. RNA-seq analysis indicated most of these Fra a 1 s expressed in fruits could be largely induced by the invasion of anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum . The mRNA level of fruit major allergen Fra a 1.05 in the resistant variety Shenyang (SY) was 20∼50 fold higher compared with those in the susceptible cultivar and two diploid wild species. Immunoblotting using Birch (Betula pendula ) Bet v 1 allergen-specific IgG antibody confirmed the large-scale accumulation of potential cross-reactive antigens in SY fruit. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry Bet v 1 potential allergens exhibit their correspondence with anthracnose resistance that might be instructive to future breeding strategies.
Keywords: Bet v 1, Fragaria; Colletotrichum
, disease resistance, allergy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Berberis microphylla (calafate) is an evergreen shrub considered a non-timber product from the Patagonian forest, relevant for the diversification of agrifood production, particularly interesting since its black–blue fruits are extremely rich in phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives were to: (1) quantify the variability of fruit traits, anthocyanin content, efficiency of the reproductive shoots and leaf nutrient content within the set of 34 B. microphylla wild accessions from Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina, (2) calculate the coefficients of correlation between variables and (3) detect relationships between the genotypes. METHODS: Plants growing near…Ushuaia city (n = 12), bordering Fagnano lake (n = 12) and central area of the Tierra del Fuego Island (n = 10) were selected. RESULTS: A significant variability in fruit traits, anthocyanin content and the efficiency of reproductive shoots among and within the three populations was assessed, a result with great relevance for breeding purposes. Phenotypic plasticity was related with the environmental conditions, i.e. air temperatures for each population during the three monitored growing seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results indicate that yearly environmental factors play a relevant role in phenotypic variation of both individual plants and populations, thus confirming the complexity of wild species evolution and domestication processes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dark-skin berries constitute a polyphenol-rich source of interest for the development of functional ingredients. OBJECTIVE: To develop an elderberry powder, addressing technological aspects for maximum bioactive recovery, including physical quality and bioaccesibility of the antioxidant compounds. METHODS: An optimization of the combined process of enzyme-assisted extraction and freeze-drying was undertaken. Polyphenols and anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric and HPLC-DAD analysis along processing stages and an in vitro digestion model was used to study the antioxidant compound activity through gastrointestinal tract and after transepithelial transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer. Powder physical properties were also…evaluated. RESULTS: The best extraction conditions were 45°C and 160 ppm enzyme. 10% maltodextrin was the minimum carrier concentration needed to get a freeze-dried powder with good physical properties and maximum bioactive content. The phenolic compounds identified in fruits (mainly cyanidin-based anthocyanins, quercetin-3-rutinoside, catechin and, in smaller amounts, gallic and chlorogenic acids) were also present in the optimum extract and the powder. High bioaccesibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were obtained after in vitro digestion and transepithelial transport. CONCLUSION: The designed elderberry powder showed great potential as functional ingredient to be used in berry juice-based beverages or other products formulated with fruit powders.
Keywords: Elderberry, freeze-dried powder, antioxidant ingredient, in vitro digestion, bioaccesibility
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is no mention in the literature of vegetative propagation of Vaccinium myrtillus . OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the rooting potential of bilberry rhizome and stem cuttings. METHODS: Rhizome and stem cuttings collected in early Autumn were dipped in different IBA solutions (0 – 2000 – 4000 mgL–1 ) and rooted in non-sterilized V. myrtillus soil and expanded perlite under controlled growth chamber environment or under mist with basal heating in a greenhouse for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Rhizome cuttings showed high rooting potential in plant growth regulator (PGR)…free substrates. Conversely, stem cuttings took advantage from IBA treatments; this positive effect on rooting percentage was synergistically increased when rooted in agriperlite. A higher rooting capacity was achieved when rhizome and stem cuttings were placed in agriperlite, however number of developed roots and shoots were much higher when V. myrtillus turf was used as substrate. Mist and bottom heating did not improve rooting significantly. CONCLUSIONS: V. myrtillus can be successfully propagated both by rhizome and stem cuttings. With an overall rooting success of 56–68% and with a reasonably good growth rate, production of planting material from stem cuttings of V. myrtillus offers opportunities for a cheaper, practically feasible and technically less demanding alternative means of propagation.
Abstract: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Whole red raspberry (WRR) consumption on vascular function was investigated in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), model of MetS. Male OZR and their lean littermates (LZR) were placed on a control (C) or an 8% w/w WRR-enriched diet for 8 weeks. Phenylephrine (Phe)-induced vasoconstriction and acetylcholine (Ach)-induced vasorelaxation were measured in aortic rings in the presence or absence of L-N-monomethyl-arginine (L-NMMA) and mefenamic acid (MFA). Phe-induced vasoconstriction was lower in the OZR-C compared to LZR-C (p < 0.05). The WRR diet partially restored aortic response in the OZR-WRR aorta (p < 0.05) compared…to OZR- C. The OZR-WRR group pre-treated with L-NMMA increased compared to OZR-C (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment with L-NMMA, maximal relaxation response was higher in the OZR compared to the LZR (p < 0.05). With L-NMMA, maximal relaxation response in OZR-WRR (p < 0.05) was lower compared to the OZR-C. Prostacyclin I2 concentration was higher in the OZR compared to the LZR (p < 0.05) and was attenuated in the OZR-WRR (p < 0.05). Aortic expression of eNOS and COX-2 were downregulated in the OZR-WRR (p < 0.05). In conclusion, WRR restores the impaired vascular tone of the OZR by enhancing Phe-induced vasoconstriction and attenuating Ach-induced vasorelaxation.
Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction, obese zucker rat, red raspberry, vasoconstriction, vasorelaxation, cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide, thromboxane A2, prostacyclin I2
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The native Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis ) is a semi-domesticated crop that has a characteristic aroma and flavor and a low production in southern Chile. However, edaphoclimatic conditions can influence on fruit quality attributes and its health benefits. Establishing a link between seasonal changes and aroma or biological activity require detailed research in exploring bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: The present work assessed how seasonal and local changes varied the content of bioactive compounds and therefore change their aromatic quality and the response of biological activity. METHODS: White Strawberry from…two seasons and two locations were investigated; FCC1, FCC2 (Fragaria chiloensis from Contulmo, 2017 and 2018 season, respectively), FCP1, FCP2 (F. chiloensis from Purén, 2017 and 2018 season, respectively). Measurement of changes on volatile compounds were studied by SPME/GC-MS. Analyses of variations on phenolic compounds were investigated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn with total polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity by using DPPH• and ORAC assays by spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. The relationship between different concentrations of compounds and in vitro biological activity including inhibitory tests for α -glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase were analyzed. RESULTS: In the fruit extracts, 38 volatiles and 27 phenolic compounds were identified detecting differences among the samples, being affected by climatic conditions and location. The total content of ellagic acid and its derivatives was 6.54 mg 100 g–1 FW for FCC1, showing statistical differences with respect to the rest strawberries. Nonetheless, the antioxidant capacity tests revealed high antioxidant capacity for all samples, being FCP2 the significantly highest activity (3314μ mol Trolox 100 g–1 FW by DPPH• assay) compared to the rest of locations and seasons. Additional inhibitory tests α -glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase showed statistically differences due to seasonal and location changes where was observed higher ellagic acid derivates content and bioactivity. The Chilean white strawberry extracts were effective inhibitors of α -glucosidase (non-competitive) and acetylcholinesterase (competitive) activities, respectively, presenting FCC1 the most potent inhibitory effects. CONCLUSIONS: A higher ellagic acid content in Chilean white strawberry, affected by seasonal and location changes, influenced on the biological activity potential. Therefore, the relatively high antioxidant capacity, phytochemical composition and biological activity potential, of these aromatic fruits, offer a great opportunity for the rural developments, however it will be necessary to implement good practices that would guarantee batch-to-batch replicability for quality and composition of these foods for the future.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: For global water shortage concerns and high cost of mineral nutrients it is necessary to decrease the amount of nutrient solutions in greenhouse production systems. Deficit fertigation may negatively affect the crop productivity and phytohormones can mitigate the adverse effects of stresses. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of deficit fertigation in combination with salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (PUT) on strawberry fruit yield and quality. METHODS: Strawberry plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution of 220 (control), 180 (mild deficit fertigation) and/or 140 mL/D (severe deficit fertigation), and treated with PUT (at 0 and 2 mM)…and/or SA (at 0 and 2 mM) and the combinations of these treatments during growth stages. Fruit growth, quality parameters, yield and phytochemical compounds were evaluated at harvest. RESULTS: Mild deficit fertigation (MDF) (140 mL/D) significantly enhanced the yield and quality of the fruit, and both PUT and SA, enhanced the positive effects of MDF on crop productivity. SA and PUT decreased the negative effects of DF on crop yield and fruit growth. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that it is possible to substantially enhance the quality and productivity of strawberries with a MDF regime, PUT and SA treatments.
Keywords: Strawberry fruit quality, deficit fertigation, phenolics, putrescine, salicylic acid
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Barberry is a valuable plant, which is useful in the treatment of different diseases. There are valuable compounds in different parts of barberry that are pruned per year and discarded as waste. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the amount of berberine, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of barberry fruits, leaves, and stems of different barberry species (B.integerrima and B.thunbergii ) were investigated. METHODS: Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) were used in this study to investigate the extraction variables (time: 2–24 h, temperature: 24–70°C and ethanol concentration: 50–90%) in the extraction of berberine from…the stem of B.integrrima . The responses used as criteria were the amount of berberine, scavenging radical DPPH, and polyphenol. Also, pulsed electric field-assisted (PEF) was applied as a pretreatment (Pulse strengths of 250, 1000 and 1250 Vcm–1 ; Pulse numbers (n) of 50 and 100; frequency (f) of 1 Hz) and then the extraction was conducted in optimum condition. PEF increased significantly the amount of berberine. RESULTS: The stem of B.integrrima had the most amounts of antioxidant activity and berberine content, and it was selected for more investigation. The optimum condition in the maceration method was: 90% of ethanol, 70°C, and 3.36 h (141.6 min). According to the result of PEF method, the best condition for extraction of berberine from barberry stems was 1000 Vcm–1 and n = 100. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that the extract of B.integrrima stem is a good source of berberine, antioxidant, and has the potential to be applied in various industries.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of polysaccharide based edible coatings as a barrier against the solute entry of high caloric constituents, such as sucrose, is a suitable strategy to develop pro-healthy osmo-dehydrated products. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to study the effect of a calcium alginate film over the drying kinetics of strawberries during an osmotic dehydration (OD) treatment at 60°Brix, 4 h, 40°C (sucrose). Also, textural parameters were evaluated. METHODS: It was determined the changes in some selected physical properties, such as: moisture, total solid contents, one-dimensional shrinkage and texture, at 30 min steps during OD treatment. Besides, water and…solid diffusion coefficients ( D e W and D e TS , respectively) were calculated by using the analytical solution of Fick’s equation. RESULTS: Diffusion coefficients for water and solids showed significant differences due to coating presence as an evidence of the barrier effect. Coated strawberry samples presented several changes after 2 h of OD treatment at the assayed conditions for most of the parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Alginate coating at the tested conditions acts as a barrier to sucrose influx and to water outflux until 2 and 3 h of OD treatment, respectively. Besides, a good textural quality for osmotically-dehydrated strawberries was obtained.