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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: Background: Drought stress affects grapevine growth and development and reduces berry yield and quality. Identifying genes that are involved in the plant response to drought stress will enable the development of new grape strains that are tolerant to drought. Objective: We cloned the VvibZIP14 gene from Vitis vinifera and analyzed its role in drought resistance. Methods: Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Subcellular localization was assessed with a transient expression assay. The transactivation activity of the protein was evaluated in yeast. The physiologic role of VvibZIP14 was analyzed by overexpressing VvibZIP14…in Arabidopsis following drought stress. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation in Arabidopsis was visualized by diaminobenzidine staining. Results: Drought stress caused the accumulation of VvibZIP14 , which was localized in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity. Transgenic plants showed improved resistance to drought stress and reduced electrolyte leakage compared to plants overexpressing empty vector, whereas chlorophyll content, photosystem II maximal photochemical efficiency, and net photosynthetic rate were higher. Catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were also increased in VvibZIP14- overexpressing plants subjected to drought stress. Conclusions: VvibZIP14 functions as a transcription factor that confers resistance to drought stress in grape by enhancing the antioxidant response.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bud dormancy is a quantitative condition that is gradually acquired and lost. Better and more convenient methods for assessment of the time of dormancy entrance of woody plants are highly needed. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a simple and convenient method for determination of dormancy in woody plants. METHODS: We employed a seasonal series of soft tipping of vigorously growing annual shoots and used the loss of ability of subtending lateral buds to break and grow as a measure of entrance into dormancy. RESULTS: There was a gradual decline in the ability of the buds…to burst and grow during the month of July and early August, culminating with a complete loss of this ability. This coincided with the known time of growth cessation and dormancy induction in shoots of intact plants and occurred in the berry shrubs raspberry and black currant and the forest tree silver birch. CONCLUSIONS: The decline and loss of ability of the buds to grow during late summer is a direct expression of the entrance of buds into the state of endodormancy, rendering the tipping method a simple and convenient method for precise determination of the time of entrance into dormancy in woody plants.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pomegranate juice (PJ) contains strong antioxidant polyphenols, and cardiovascular beneficial effects have been reported for the fruit. OBJECTIVE: Using a Langendorff’s model, we hypothesized that PJ has antiarrhythmic effects on isolated rat hearts. METHODS: The hearts in the control group (n = 10) were perfused with Krebs solution. The test groups (n = 10, each) were further perfused with PJ, L-NAME (L), or both (PJL). Following 30 min stabilization, all hearts experienced 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. The hearts were monitored for the occurrence of single and salvo arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia (VT), and ventricular fibrillation (VF). The…cardiac release of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and nitrite were measured. In addition, the markers of oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in the homogenates of the hearts. RESULTS: The PJ group showed a significant reduction in the occurrence of arrhythmias, an improvement in redox markers, and a rise in nitrite release, compared to the control. Simultaneous treatment with L-NAME significantly reduced, but not fully abolished, these effects. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests strong anti-arrhythmic effects for PJ, which are mainly mediated by nitric oxide.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is concern that DNA damage may occur in skin cells due to UV irradiation. In this study, we investigated whether extracts from grape skin, which should be discarded, can suppress DNA damage caused by UV radiation. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effectivity of GSE in diminishing UV-induced cytotoxicity in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) cells. METHODS: The polyphenol content in GSE was carried out using the HPLC instrument. UV dose was selected by measurement of cell viability, and ELISA results of DNA photoproduct. Optimum extracts condition of grape skin selected by DNA…photoproduct content as well as at this condition; Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome c gene expressions were evaluated by Western blotting. RESULTS: In this study, we confirmed that GSE protect against DNA damage-induced cell death. Condition for 80% EtOH for 24 h at 60 °C was suitable to extract for grape skin. Red grape skin (Zweigelt) was more effective than white grape skin (Niagara) in preventing (before irradiation) and repairing (after irradiation). UV-induced upregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome c expression were reduced by GSE treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated a promising potential of GSEs in skin therapeutics application.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Berries are worldwide recognized as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive compounds and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. OBJECTIVE: The present study was planned to assess and to compare the chemical profile and the in vitro antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. berries and leaves extracts obtained by different extraction procedures. Ethanol was chosen as solvent because it is a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and widely used for the extraction of polar compounds. METHODS: Different extraction techniques such asmaceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extractor and decoction,…have been applied by using food grade ethanol/water as solvent mixture, selected as environmentally friendly solvents. Extracts obtained from fruits and leaves were chemically investigated by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and for their potential in vitro antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, and anti-inflammatory effects. RESULTS: Some iridoids were detected for the first time in V. corymbosum . Dried leaves extracted by decoction and ethanol with Soxhlet apparatus showed the highest 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.77μg/mL, which is 2.2-time lower than that positive control ascorbic acid. A promising inhibition of the production of nitrate/nitrite, critical mediators of inflammation, was found. The decoction of berries showed the highest activity in counteracting nitric oxide (NO.) production. Furthermore, two leaves extracts (decoction of dried leaves and hydroalcoholic maceration of fresh leaves) were particularly active as α-amylase inhibitors with IC50 values of 16.16 and 20.55 μg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This work could provide valuable basis for future research on V. corymbosum to improve recovery of specific active compounds such as flavonoids and iridoids
Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum, extraction procedures, chemical profiles, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is among the most widely consumed fruits in the world and its cultivation is increasing worldwide. This continuous increase in its cultivation acreage is concomitant with the development of new varieties by numerous breeding programs. Due to strawberry is a microclimatic crop, the behaviour of the cultivars could vary depending on many agronomical and environmental factors such as temperature or humidity. Thus, for some traits, data from a single crop season may not be enough to suspect the behaviour of a specific variety. OBJECTIVE: Generate information that allows knowing the…consistency of different characteristics over time. METHODS: For four consecutive years, organoleptic and yield related traits were analysed in five strawberry cultivars. RESULTS: The overall result is a significant effect of genotype on all yield relates and organoleptic parameters studied. Our study also inferred an effect of environment, temperature and relative humidity, mainly on yield parameters. However, not all cultivars were similarly affected. CONCLUSIONS: With the information generated from this work, it will be possible to establish, based on the consistency of the cultivar trials over time, the suitability of using the results of a single season to predict the behaviour of a particular cultivar.
Keywords: Breeding, Fragaria x ananassa, fruit quality, genotype, harvest, humidity, phenotypic plasticity, temperature
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Purple Queen® is an early ripening pomegranate cultivar growing well in soilless cultivation. Substrates have direct effects on plant development and, due to progressive peatland exhaustion, the request for new materials for plant growth is high. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to verify the effects of a new potential substrate obtained from the remediation of marine port sediments on the nutraceutical profile of Purple Queen® fruits, using 50% and 100% of reclaimed sediment. METHODS: The study was carried out determining ellagitannins and polysaccharides obtained from peel after decoction, and anthocyanins…in aril juice on fruits from two agronomic seasons. RESULTS: The presence of 100% of the sediment had a partial detrimental effect on fruits size and weight. Compared to a peat-based commercial substrate (control), remediated sediment preserved ellagitannin content and increased the anthocyanin amount (up to 40% higher) and polysaccharide content up to 34% on dry fruit. High molecular weight polysaccharides (>2000 kDa) were identified in all the fruits with glucose and galacturonic acid as the major sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Fruits from plants cultivated only on sediment or in a mixture with 50% of peat showed significant increases of bioactive compounds as stress response in two consecutive seasons.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: DNA methylation balance is an important regulatory mechanism for mammalian and plant development. The fruit ripening and anthocyanin accumulation of Vaccinium corymbosum are complex developmental processes that involve numerous physiological, biochemical, and structural alterations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of DNA methylation balance, DNA methylation and demethylation-related gene expression models and anthocyanin accumulation during blueberry fruit ripening. METHODS: The anthocyanin contents during V. corymbosum ‘O’Neal’ fruit development were evaluated. The V. corymbosum DNA methylation- and anthocyanin accumulation-related genes were isolated, and their relative expression patterns were detected during flower…bud enlargement and fruit development. Moreover, the relative expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the dynamic changes in the DNA methylation of the promoter sequences of key anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were evaluated. RESULTS: The results showed that the DNA methylation level of V. corymbosum fruit was consistent with anthocyanin accumulation during ripening, and the expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic and DNA methylation-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: During V. corymbosum fruit ripening, anthocyanin accumulation is regulated partially by DNA methylation balance of VcCHS and VcANS promoters.
Keywords: DNA methylation, anthocyanin accumulation, blueberry, Vaccinium
, fruit development
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Melatonin (MT) is an endogenous indoleamine that regulates senescence progression and stress response in plants. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the effect of MT on the shelf-life and postharvest quality of table grapes (Vitis labrusca L. cv. ‘Fengzao’). METHODS: After harvesting, ‘Fengzao’ grapes were immersed in MT solution at various concentrations (0 [as control], 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM for 2 h and stored at 24±1 for 15 days. Physiological indicators including weight loss rate, firmness, contents of total soluble solids (TSSs), ascorbic acid (AsA), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and activities of catalase…(CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated. Additionally, the DNA methylation rate of ‘Fengzao’ grapes were measured using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. RESULTS: Application of MT effectively delayed grape senescence in all treatment groups compared with the control, with the longest delay observed in the 0.5 mM treatment. Additionally, the rate of DNA methylation decreased in all the 0.5 mM MT treatment groups, indicating a potential role of MT in demethylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the exogenous application of MT can delay the senescence of grapes during postharvest.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Grapevine was one of the most important perennial fruit crops worldwide. Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) in eudicots and monocots show conservation in an acyl-CoA-binding domain (ACB domain) which binds acyl-CoA esters. OBJECTIVE: The information and data provided in the present study contributes to understand the evolutionary processes and potential functions of this gene family in grapevine growth and development, and responses to abiotic stress. METHODS: Using the complete grapevine genome sequences, we investigated the number grapevine ACBP genes, the exon-intron structure, phylogenetic relationships and synteny with the Arabidopsis ACBP gene family. Furthermore, the expression…profiles of VvACBP genes based on public microarray data in different tissues, and the expression patterns responding to different exogenous hormones as well as abiotic and biotic stresses were presented. The qRT-PCR was used to verify the microarray data under drought stress treatments. Finally, the leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content, and enzymatic activities were measured to further examine the tolerance to drought stress in grapevine. RESULTS: The six grapevine ACBPs were identified. Their distribution into various groups differed from Arabidopsis and rice. Synteny analysis demonstrated that several VvACBP genes were found in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis , suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of the respective lineages. Sequence alignment and structural annotation provided an overview of variations that might contribute to functional divergence from Arabidopsis ACBPs . Expressional analyses suggested that both conserved and variant biological functions exist in ACBPs across different species. The expression pattern of these genes were similar in the microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. Gene structure organization and expression characteristics of VvACBPs resembled those of their Arabidopsis orthologous, although species-specific differences also exist. Differential regulation of genes suggested functional diversification among isoforms. The biochemical and physiological data showed the tolerance to drought stress of grapevine. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provided insight into evolution of ACBP gene family in plants and a solid foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex molecular responses of grapevine to stress.
Keywords: Grapevine, VvACBPs
, evolution, abiotic stress, biochemical and