Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We report the case of a patient who presented with right dorsal scapular neuropathy after a trigger point injection into the right rhomboid major muscle. Through a nerve conduction study and electromyography, we demonstrated dorsal scapular nerve injury in this patient. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man complained that his right shoulder functioned less optimally during push-up exercises after a trigger point injection 4 weeks prior. Physical examination revealed mildly reduced right shoulder retractor muscle strength compared with the left side. We performed a nerve conduction velocity test and electromyography 5 weeks after the injection. The…compound muscle action potential of the right dorsal scapular nerve showed low amplitude (left vs. right side: 5.2 vs. 1.6 mV) and delayed latency (left vs. right side: 4.9 vs. 6.8 ms). Positive sharp wave (1+ ) and mildly reduced recruitment were seen on electromyography of the rhomboid major muscle. The findings of the nerve conduction velocity test and electromyography indicated partial right dorsal scapular neuropathy. The nerve injury seemed to have been caused by the needle inserted during trigger point injection. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should pay attention to the occurrence of dorsal scapular nerve injury when performing trigger point injection into the rhomboid muscle.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are some of the autoimmune diseases related to the decreases in Vitamin D levels. The same immunological properties as psoriasis, such as Th1/Th2 dysregulation, are seen in all of them. This study aims to compare 25-hidroksi Vitamin D (25-OHD) serum concentrations in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: This study includes 91 outpatients; 48 of these patients were chosen randomly among the psoriasis (PS) patients from the dermatology department of the researchers’ hospital. Forty-three of…them were chosen among the psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients matching the age and gender criteria from the rheumatology department of the researchers’ hospital. In this study, 25-OHD serum concentrations among the psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients were compared. RESULT: There are more patients in the PsA group with 25-OHD levels lower than 20 ng/ml; however, this finding is insufficient to obtain statistical significance (p = 0.09). PsA and psoriasis groups had similar numbers of patients with 25-OHD levels ranging from 20 to 30 mg/mL and those higher than 30 mg/mL (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The literature does not show significant differences between the PS and PsA groups in terms of serum 25-OHD levels and a prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. Besides, PASI scores were higher in the PS group. CRP values in the PsA group were higher than in the PS group. There was a poor negative correlation between CRP and serum 25-OHD levels in the PsA group. This correlation was not found in the PS group.
Keywords: Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, Vitamin D
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Among the tools for relieving lower back pain, footrests are commonly recommended. Few studies have investigated the effects of footrest and the proper application of footrest height. OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the normalized footrest height on muscle fatigue, kinematics, kinetics, and pain intensity. METHODS : In total, 13 males who had a history of non-specific lower back pain during prolonged standing were recruited. The experimental conditions were 2-hour prolonged standing with no footrest and with footrests of 5%, 10%, and 15% of body height. Muscle fatigue was…investigated through measurements of the median frequency ratio and the muscle activity ratio (post/pre) in lumbar erector spinae. The lumbo-pelvic angles, and the external moment in the lumbar region were investigated. A visual analog scale was used to investigate the intensity of the pain. RESULTS : The footrests at 10% and 15% of the body height caused a lower change in the median frequency ratio and the muscle activity ratio than the other conditions. The footrest at 10% of the body height placed the lowest external moment on the lumbar region among all the conditions. The pain intensity was significantly lower in with footrest conditions than with no footrest condition. CONCLUSIONS : The results suggests that a footrest height of 10% of the body height can be recommended as a normalized height for prolonged standing work in subjects with a history of non-specific lower back pain during prolonged standing.
Keywords: Footrest, lower back pain, normalization, prolonged standing
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The selection and validation of age- and gender-specific criterion-referenced cut-points for abdominal endurance are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To stablish normative values for abdominal endurance in adolescents by age and gender using the Bench Trunk Curl-up Test (BTC ). Additionally, the reliability of the BTC was analyzed. METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen untrained high school students (104 males - 112 females) were grouped into five age strata. Participants performed the BTC twice with a rest period of 72 h. Descriptive statistics and percentile scores were determined for each gender/age strata.…RESULTS: Males showed higher BTC scores than females (males: 90.07 ± 32.65 repetitions; females: 73.43 ± 27.74 repetitions), but no significant differences between age strata nor age * gender interaction were found. Significant differences for the BTC scores between sessions were found (T1 = 72.06 ± 26.28 repetitions; T2 = 81.44 ± 31.27 repetitions). The ICC was 0.82, whereas the typical error was 17.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Gender, but not age, is an important factor when abdominal endurance is compared between adolescents. Finally, the BTC is a reliable test, supporting the findings of this study. However, an extensive familiarization period to reduce the learning effect is necessary.
Keywords: Abdominal muscles, endurance, teenagers, field test
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic back pain poses major challenges for all health care systems and patients worldwide. Myofascial trigger therapy (MT), although a very popular standard non-pharmaceutical form of treatment, only shows small to medium effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To test a new vibrotreatment (Cellconnect Impulse transmitting low-frequency, vertical shock waves in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: Eligible patients were adults seeking physiotherapeutic treatment. They were randomly allocated to either six treatments of MT or to six treatments of combined MT and vibrotreatment. Outcome parameters were pain intensity, pain days, pain duration, and quality…of life. RESULTS: The pain relieving effects of the combined treatment were very large (d = 1.6). It clearly outperformed MT and considerably improved patients’ health related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Combining MT with Cellconnect Impulse enhances the physiotherapeutic effectiveness of treating chronic back pain.
Keywords: Cellconnect Impulse, chronic back pain, myofascial trigger point therapy, quality of life, vibrotherapy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) used for knee pain originating from osteoarthritis is one of these methods. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knee functional status and pain palliation following the application of pulse radiofrequency in patients with cardiac comorbid disease who were diagnosed with advanced stage osteoarthritis. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with high surgical risk having cardiac comorbidities with grade 3–4 gonarthrosis according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification were retrospectively analyzed. PRF was applied to the saphenous nerve of each patient. Visual Analog Scale for knee pain evaluation both at rest…and on movement and the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale for function evaluation were used. The patient status was evaluated before the procedure and at the first and sixth months after the procedure. RESULTS: The mean age was 68.8 years (range, 53–82 years). Both the rest and movement post-procedural Visual Analog Scale scores at first and sixth months were significantly lower than pre-procedural values (p < 0.001). A statistically significant improvement was also determined when pre- and one and six months post-procedural Lysholm scores were compared (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PRF is a safe and function sparing non-invasive pain palliation method for knee osteoarthritis in elders with cardiac comorbidity.
Abstract: BACKROUND: Soft tissue mobilization techniques (STM) are used in clinical practice in treatment of congenital muscular torticollis(CMT).However, little is known about its effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether using STM to manage CMT in babies with mild to moderate head tilt was effective or not. METHODS: Twenty-nine babies with CMT aged between 0-6 months, who had a head tilt from 5 to 20 degrees were allocated to two groups. Both groups received a baseline home program (positioning, handling strategies, stretching and strengthening exercises, environmental adaptations). The study group (SG) also received STM three times a week.…Babies were evaluated initially, at six weeks, at 12 weeks and for follow-up at 18 weeks with muscle function scale, head tilt and range of motion for neck lateral flexion and rotation. RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvements in all measured parameters (p < 0.05). In comparison of groups, there were differences at six weeks in favor of the SG for neck rotation (0.001) and head tilt (= 0.006); but at 12 weeks and follow up, there were no longer any differences between the groups in any of the measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS: STM techniques are effective in getting faster positive results in the treatment of CMT.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Individuals with disc degeneration experience associated pain and disability. Considering its safety and affordability, Kinesio tape (KT) may be a viable treatment. However, most KT studies have demonstrated its effects in healthy adults and patients with nonspecific low back pain. The efficacy of KT in patients with disc degeneration is yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVES: To examine the acute effects of KT on patients with lumbar disc degeneration confirmed through magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: A total of 31 eligible patients (aged 25–64 years) with low back pain caused by lumbar disc degeneration…were divided into mild and moderate-to-severe pain groups. KT was applied to the painful lumbar region in a lumbar brace-like pattern for 1 day. A visual analogue scale for pain and the Oswestry disability index were analysed before and after 1 day of taping. The Biering-Sorensen test for trunk muscle endurance was performed before, immediately after, and 1 day after taping as well as immediately after tape removal. RESULTS: After taping, both groups showed significant pain reduction (p < 0.001), but the reduction was of minimal clinical importance in the moderate-to-severe pain group. The magnitude of treatment (i.e. effect size) was higher in the moderate-to-severe pain group. Disability significantly decreased in both groups, particularly in the moderate-to-severe pain group, but the improvement was not clinically worthwhile. Trunk muscle endurance significantly improved in both groups with in situ taping, but it decreased after tape removal. CONCLUSIONS: KT may be adopted as an assistive aid for immediate pain reduction, particularly in lumbar disc degeneration patients with moderate-to-severe pain; however, its effects on disability and trunk muscle endurance are not clinically worthwhile. The long-term effects of KT, with or without active exercise, warrant further assessment.
Keywords: Kinesio taping, low back pain, disc degeneration, Oswestry disability index, Biering-Sorensen test
Abstract: Treatment of total ruptures of adductor longus is challenging in professional sports. Time for return to pre-injury level as well as re-injury rates are of concern and surgical and conservative treatment approaches are debated; yet no consensus approach described for professional athletes. We present a case of a professional soccer player who experienced a rupture in his left adductor longus proximal tendon during a game and was treated conservatively. This case was followed-up during clinical assessment, imaging and strength testing until and after return to play. Primary outcome measure was the return to standard play condition at his pre-injury level…without any functional deficits, measured by isokinetic testing. Second outcome measure was the recurrence. No recurrence was observed during the first year of follow-up. Total ruptures are very challenging for both the physician and the player to make a quick decision due to minimal or lack of pain. Functional outcomes are almost identical although operative treatments need longer time to return to play. This case report adds another example to the literature of a successful return to play after non-operative treatment of adductor longus rupture at elite level soccer.
Keywords: Total rupture, soccer, return to play, groin pain, platelet rich plasma
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can cause severe functional disorders that lead to loss of balance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balance and postural stability exercises on spa based rehabilitation programme in AS subjects. METHODS: Twenty-one participants were randomized to the study (n = 11) and control groups (n = 10). Patients balance and stability were assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, Single Leg Stance Test (SLST) and Functional Reach Test (FRT).…AS spesicied measures were used for assessing to other parameters. The treatment plan for both groups consisted of conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), spa and land-based exercises 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The study group performed exercises based on postural stability and balance with routine physiotherapy practice in thermal water and in exercise room. RESULTS: The TUG, SLST and FUT scores were significantly increased in the study group. In both groups, the BASMI, BASFI, BASDAI and ASQoL scores decreased significantly by the end of the treatment period (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In AS rehabilitation, performing balance and stability exercises in addition to spa based routine approaches can increase the duration of maintaining balance and can improve the benefits of physiotherapy.