Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Monopolar radiofrequency ablation (MRFA) of the genicular nerves has been considered the main interventional treatment for chronic knee pain. However, the variable locations of these nerves could suggest that traditional MRFA of genicular nerves may be insufficient to cover the area needed to provide complete sensory denervation. For these reasons, some alternatives have been proposed to achieve an increase in the lesion area that offers better outcomes such a bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA). OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and safety of the bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA) of the genicular nerves in the patients with chronic…knee pain. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the Pain Medicine Department. Institutional review board approval from the Hospital Ethical Committee and informed consent were obtained. We reviewed our database for BRFA of genicular nerves from January 2018 to December 2021 for patients with chronic knee pain. The cannulas were placed using ultrasound guidance (10 cm, 22-gauge and 10 mm active curved tip), and each pair of cannulas were subjected to BRFA for 90 seconds at 80 ∘ C. Data analysis was conducted using T-test for paired variables (Visual analogue scale and EuroQol, an instrument intended to complement other forms of quality-of-life measures). RESULTS: Twenty-five patients met inclusion criteria after excluding 7 based on the study design. The mean improvement of our patients according to the VAS was - 3.98 (95%CI: - 4.37 to - 3.59) p < 0.0001 and EuroQol + 0.416 (95%CI: 0.364 to 0.468) p < 0.0001. The mean duration of improvement was 8 (6–11) months after BRFA. There were no reported serious adverse events related to the procedure, only local pain for 24 to 48 hours in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that BRFA reduces procedural pain and increases the treatment area, providing more complete sensory denervation and improved clinical outcomes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Epidural steroid injections are common procedures used to treat lumbosacral radicular pain due to lumbar disc herniation (LDH). It is crucial for the clinician to anticipate which patients can benefit from interventional treatment options. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effect of radiological and clinical parameters on lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESI)/local anesthetic injection outcomes in patients with LDH. METHODS: This study included 286 patients with LDH (146 males and 140 females). All patients received a fluoroscopically guided TFESI (triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg, lidocaine 2%, and 2.5 ml of physiological…saline). Patients were evaluated according to radicular pain, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline and 3 months after the injections. Demographic, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded to assess the predictive factors for TFESI outcomes. Pfirrmann Grades 1 and 2 were classified as low-grade nerve root compression and Grade 3 was classified as highgrade nerve root compression. RESULTS: Compared to baseline measurements there were significant improvements in radicular pain, ODI score, Laseque angle, and Schober test scores 3 months after injection. Improvements of at least 50% in radicular pain relief and the ODI functionality index were (n = 214) 82%, (n = 182) 70% respectively at 3 months. Correlation analyses revealed that a shorter duration of symptoms, lowgrade nerve root compression and foraminal/extraforaminal location on MRI findings were associated with a favorable response. CONCLUSIONS: Lowgrade nerve root compression was a predictor of a favorable response to TFESI.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: To measure hamstring flexibility, the active knee extension (AKE) test is preferred over the straight leg raise (SLR) test as it can be used to measure hamstring flexibility more selectively. However, hamstring stretching is primarily conducted in the SLR position (maximal hip flexion in the supine position) as it allows for maximal hip flexion in the supine position. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching in the AKE position (maximal knee extension with 90 ∘ flexion of the hip in the supine position) on hip, knee, and…ankle flexibility. METHODS: SLR, AKE, and active dorsiflexion (ADF) tests were used to determine the range of motion (ROM) before (pre-ROM) and after (post-ROM) stretching. PNF stretching consisted of maximal isometric knee flexion at the end range with external resistance to prevent knee flexion. One set of PNF stretches (five trials of six seconds each) was conducted. RESULTS: The post-ROMs of hip, knee, and ankle measured via the SLR, AKE, and ADF tests, respectively, were significantly higher than the pre-ROMs. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in knee flexibility was greater than the improvement in hip and ankle flexibility. The AKE position is recommended in clinical settings during PNF stretching for individuals with hamstring tightness. Furthermore, PNF stretching in the AKE position increases the ADF ROM.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle imbalance has long been recognized as one of the possible pathogeneses for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). PIEZO2, the susceptibility gene of AIS, has been identified to play an important role in neuromuscular activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the mRNA expression of PIEZO2 between concave and convex paraspinal muscles of AIS patients and to identify the relationship between the ratio of PIEZO2 expression and curve magnitude. METHODS: Twenty female AIS patients (right thoracic curve) who underwent spinal correction surgery were divided into moderate (n =…12) and severe (⩾ 70 degrees) curve groups (n = 8). The morphology of the paraspinal muscles was assessed with spinal MRI. Multifidus specimens were collected during surgical operations from the concave and convex sides of the apical region, and mRNA expression of the PIEZO2 gene was compared between sides. The localization of PIEZO2 protein expression was confirmed with the markers PAX7 and PAX3, and the percentage of PIEZO2 + cells was also investigated. RESULTS: In the moderate curve group, fatty infiltration in the deep paraspinal muscle was significantly higher on the concave side than on the convex side. There were no differences in deep muscle area, superficial muscle area, or fatty infiltration of superficial paraspinal muscle. The mRNA expression of PIEZO2 was significantly increased on the concave side, and the asymmetric expression predominantly occurred in moderate curves rather than severe ones. PIEZO2 was expressed on satellite cells instead of fibers of the muscle spindle. The percent of PIEZO2 + PAX7 + cells in myofibers was significantly higher on the concave side in the moderate curve group, but not in the severe curve group. CONCLUSIONS: Asymmetric morphological changes occur in the deep paraspinal muscles of AIS. The PIEZO2 is asymmetrically expressed in the multifidus muscle and is preferentially expressed in satellite cells.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Self-corrective exercise is commonly used in the training protocol of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The muscle activation pattern during symmetrical and overcorrection exercises is then explored to guide the treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the paraspinal muscle activity during three self-corrective positions and the habitual standing in AIS. METHODS: Thirty-three adolescents with double curved scoliosis were examined. The curve type and Cobb’s angle were determined from their whole spine X-ray. They adopted habitual standing, symmetrical correction and two overcorrected positions (O1 and O2). The surface electromyography (EMG) was monitored on both…sides of paraspinal muscles at the apex areas of scoliotic curves. The EMG ratio between sides was inferred as the corrective effect. RESULTS: All three self-correction positions produced greater EMG ratios compared with the habitual standing. The greatest EMG ratios were observed during the O1 position at the thoracic curve and the habitual standing at the lumbar curve. Participants with different subtypes of curves exhibited similar patterns of EMG ratios. CONCLUSION: From the biomechanical viewpoint, all three self-corrective positions possibly provided therapeutic effects for the scoliotic body regardless of the subtype of scoliosis curves. The O1 position seemed to be most effective for the adjusting activation of thoracic paraspinal muscles. The symmetrical corrective position is otherwise recommended for adjusting the lumbar muscle activation.
Keywords: Scoliosis, therapeutic exercise, EMG, postural training
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) or percutaneous short-segment fixation (PSSF) is often used to treat Kummell’s disease. However, it is not clear which treatment is better for patients. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare the clinical efficacy of PVP and PSSF for the treatment of Kummell’s disease. METHOD: 60 patients were involved in this research and the period of follow-up was at least 2 years. 27 of them were treated with PVP (Group I) and the rest who received PSSF (Group II). The visual analog scale (VAS) and radiographic indexes of each participant had been measured…preoperatively as well as 1 week, 3 months, and 2 years postoperatively. Additionally, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were assessed at the last time point. RESULTS: Comparing the two groups, no statistical significance was found among all parameters preoperatively. The time of operations and blood loss is less in Group I. At each time point after operation, the imaging indices in Group II are lower (P < 0.05). One week after treatments, the VAS scores are lower in Group I, and similarly, 3 months are the same (P < 0.05), while VAS are similar at the last time point. In the aspect of ODI scores, they are lower in Group II during long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: For the treatment of Kummell’s disease, both PVP and PSSF have been found to be effective. PVP can provide rapid pain relief with a shorter operation time. However, in cases with severe kyphosis deformity, PSSF should be given priority.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This study on gait biomechanics is based on a functional test (FT) performed at free and fast walking speeds. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the pattern of changes in gait biomechanical parameters and the knee function in patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or its reconstruction. METHODS: The study included 51 patients (33 males, 18 females) with a confirmed recent or old history of ACL tear, before or after reconstruction (26 patients). Mocap data was obtained using an inertial system. All patients were divided into three groups: 41 patients with physiological response (compensation),…6 patients with signs of decompensation, and 4 non-assessable patients. RESULTS: Increase in gait speed was associated with decrease in the walking cycle duration, stance and double support phases. In the compensation group, the physiological response of the knee was manifested in increased amplitudes. In the decompensation group, the amplitudes remained unchanged or decreased. In the compensation group, there were increases in the symmetrical muscle activity. The decompensation group was characterized by electromyography asymmetry. CONCLUSION: The observed universal physiological mechanism limiting the load on the damaged joint can be used for accurate assessment of the knee functional state in various periods of rehabilitation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System (SLICS) is a commonly used algorithm for diagnosing and managing subaxial cervical spine trauma. A SLIC score 4 suggests either surgery or non-surgically treatment depending on the surgeon’s experience and patient’s conditions. OBJECTIVE: Prognosis and treatment results were analyzed in patients with SLIC score 4. METHODS: The patients with SLIC score 4 were retrospectively reviewed from 2012 to 2019. Forty-one patients were included and divided into two groups: non-surgically treated and surgically treated. Demographic data and radiographs were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed to determine…the difference between the two clinical groups. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were non-surgically treated, and nineteen patients were surgically treated. There was no neurological deterioration in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the last follow-up AISA and Nurick grade (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of patients who showed improvement when comparing the initial and the last follow-up neurological status (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Regardless of the treatment method, the spinal cord injury patients with SLICS point 4 showed a relatively good prognosis. Patients with SLIC score 4 could be treated non-surgically or surgically based on the surgeon’s experience and factors associated with the patient’s acute health status and chronic comorbidities.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The local hemodynamic response after cupping therapy has been considered as a contributing factor for improving muscle tissue health; however, the effects of cupping pressure and duration on the spatial hemodynamic response have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response inside and outside the cupping cup under various pressures and durations of cupping therapy. METHODS: A 3-way factorial design with repeated measures was used to investigate the main and interaction effects of the location (areas inside and outside the cup), pressure (-…225 and - 300 mmHg) and duration (5 and 10 min) on the hemodynamic response of the biceps muscle. A functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess hemodynamic changes in 18 participants. RESULTS: A significant three-way interaction of the location, pressure, and duration factors was observed in oxyhemoglobin (p = 0.023), deoxy-hemoglobin (p = 0.013), and blood volume (p = 0.013). A significant increase was observed in oxyhemoglobin, blood volume, and oxygenation compared to pre-cupping (p < 0.05) in the area outside the cup. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that an appropriate combination of cupping pressure and duration can effectively affect the spatial hemodynamic response of the biceps.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Elastic taping that applies shear force affects joint movement. However, it remains uncertain whether elastic taping or stretching is more effective in improving flexibility. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether elastic taping for flexibility improvement is comparable to traditional stretching. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 64 university students were randomly allocated to two groups: elastic taping on the sole or 30 s of static stretching. The primary outcome measures were the straight leg raising angle, tested with an equivalence margin (± 9.61 ∘ on changes), and…the fingertip-to-floor distance. Secondary outcomes were the hip flexor and knee extensor strength, two-step distance, adverse events, and pain intensity during the intervention, which were compared using conventional statistical methods. RESULTS: The mean differences in straight leg raising between the two groups after the interventions were not greater than the equivalence margin (mean [95% CI]: 1.4 [- 6.9, 9.5]; equivalence margin, - 9.61 ∘ to 9.61 ∘ ). There were no consistent differences between groups in terms of secondary outcomes except for pain intensity during the intervention (p > 0.05). Elastic taping did not induce pain. CONCLUSION: Elastic taping augments the flexibility-improving effect comparable to static stretching, based on an equivalence margin. Elastic taping of the sole appears to be an alternative method of improving flexibility.
Keywords: Athletic tape, Muscle stretching exercises, Range of motion, articula, Randomized controlled trials as topic