Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 36, issue 1
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cupping therapy has been used to treat musculoskeletal impairments for about 4000 years. Recently, world athletes have provoked an interest in it, however, the evidence to support its use in managing musculoskeletal and sports conditions remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence level of the effect of cupping therapy in managing common musculoskeletal and sports conditions. METHODS: 2214 studies were identified through a computerized search, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. The search involved randomized and case series studies published between 1990 and 2019. The search involved five databases (Scopus, MEDLINE…(PubMed), Web of Science, Academic Search Complete PLUS (EBSCO), and CrossRef) and contained studies written in the English language. Three analyses were included: the quality assessment using the PEDro scale, physical characteristic analysis, and evidence-based analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that most studies used dry cupping, except five which used wet cupping. Most studies compared cupping therapy to non-intervention, the remaining studies compared cupping to standard medical care, heat, routine physiotherapy, electrical stimulation, active range of motion and stretching, passive stretching, or acetaminophen. Treatment duration ranged from 1 day to 12 weeks. The evidence of cupping on increasing soft tissue flexibility is moderate, decreasing low back pain or cervical pain is low to moderate, and treating other musculoskeletal conditions is very low to low. The incidence of adverse events is very low. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first attempt to analyze the evidence level of cupping therapy in musculoskeletal and sports rehabilitation. However, cupping therapy has low to moderate evidence in musculoskeletal and sports rehabilitation and might be used as a useful intervention because it decreases the pain level and improves blood flow to the affected area with low adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of performing short foot exercises (SFEs) on the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the effects of SFEs. METHODS: ‘SFE’ and ‘intrinsic foot muscle’ were keywords used to search for randomized controlled trials. One researcher screened relevant articles based on their titles and abstracts, and two independent researchers closely read the texts, accepting nine studies for inclusion. Outcomes, intervention duration, frequency, and the number of interventions were investigated. RESULTS: Of 299 potential studies identified,…the titles and abstracts of 211 studies were reviewed, and 192 were excluded. The full texts of 21 studies were obtained and evaluated according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies concerning the MLA were identified, with four reporting MLA improvement. There was no consensus concerning the number and frequency of SFEs performed, and the mechanism of MLA improvement was unclear. MLA improvement was observed in participants who undertook ⩾ 5 weeks of interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that performing SFEs for ⩾ 5 weeks is effective in improving the MLA. Randomized controlled trials with details concerning the number and frequency of treatments are required.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Even though literature indicates presence of weak hip abductors and lateral rotators’ in Patellofemoral Pain (PFP), studies evaluating the effect of hip abductors and lateral rotators strengthening to improve knee function and quality of life in PFP are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviews and meta-analyzes the best evidence on the therapeutic value of strengthening hip abductors and lateral rotators muscles for treating PFP with a presumptive hypothesis that strengthening hip muscles stabilizes the patellofemoral joint, relieves pain, and enhances knee functions. METHOD: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and PubMed Central databases were…searched between January 1994 and September 2019 using the PICOS tool. The methodological quality of the selected studies were appraised individually using the 20-item McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. Supplemental quality appraisal of randomized controlled clinical trials performed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s ‘Risk of bias’ quality criteria. Data on patient population demographics, interventions, duration of intervention, and outcome measures were extracted and summarized in evidence tables and descriptive analysis. Meta-analyses under both fixed and random-effects models determined pooled effects size from appropriate RCTs. RESULTS: All fourteen studies demonstrated that hip muscle strengthening improved pain and knee function. All RCTs, except one, demonstrated that hip muscle strengthening is superior to quadriceps strengthening. Of the five RCTs assessing the additional effect of hip-quad versus quadriceps strengthening, four suggested that hip-quad strengthening is superior to standard quadriceps strengthening alone to improve PFP and knee function. CONCLUSION: In adult patients with PFP, strengthening hip abductors and lateral rotators’ have beneficial therapeutic effects than the conventional quadriceps exercises in improving knee pain and function both in the short- and long term. However, the present review data can be used to develop a standardized hip-quad protocol in the future.
Keywords: Patellofemoral pain syndrome, anterior knee pain syndrome, hip and quadriceps and hip muscles strengthening, knee function, systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic neck pain is one of the main reasons for visiting a healthcare professional. In recent years, it has been shown that upper cervical restriction may be a factor involved in neck pain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the immediate effects of a real cervical mobilization technique versus a sham cervical mobilization technique in patients with chronic neck pain and upper cervical restriction. METHODS: This was a randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were recruited and divided into two groups (14 = real cervical mobilization; 14…= sham mobilization). Both groups received a single 5-minute treatment session. Upper cervical range motion, flexion-rotation test, deep cervical activation and pressure pain threshold were measured. RESULTS: In the between-groups comparison, statistically significant differences were found in favour of the real cervical mobilization group in upper cervical extension (p = 0.003), more restricted side of flexion-rotation test (p < 0.001) and less restricted side of flexion-rotation test (p = 0.007) and in the pressure pain threshold of the right trapezius (p = 0.040) and right splenius (p = 0.049). No differences in deep muscle activation were obtained. CONCLUSION: The real cervical mobilization group generates improvements in upper cervical spine movement and pressure pain threshold of right trapezius and right splenius compared to the sham group in patients with chronic neck pain and upper cervical restriction.
Keywords: Musculoskeletal manipulations, neck pain, range of motion, cervical vertebrae
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acute central cord syndrome (ACCS) without fractures or dislocations is the most common form of incomplete spinal cord injury. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of different surgical methods in the treatment of acute central cord syndrome without fractures or dislocations of the cervical spine. METHODS: A total of 164 patients with ACCS without fracture or dislocation of the cervical spine treated in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2019 were recruited and assigned to study group A and study group B according to different treatment modalities, with 82 cases in each…group. Study group A underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and study group B was treated with posterior cervical laminectomy. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification and motor scores of all cases at admission and at discharge were recorded, and the treatment outcomes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the ASIA classification and ASIA motor scores between the two groups at admission (P > 0.05). One year after surgery, the ASIA motor scores and sensory scores were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05) but showed significant improvement compared to the preoperative scores (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and posterior cervical laminectomy can improve the ASIA classification, ASIA motor scores, and sensory scores of ACCS patients without fractures or dislocations of the cervical spine. Therefore, surgical methods should be adopted based on the patients’ conditions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with stroke have hypomobility in the facet joint of affected side. Lumbar joint mobilization could be used to maintain function and mobility of the joints. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of lumbar joint mobilization on trunk function, postural balance, and gait in patients with stroke. METHODS: Thirty patients with stroke were randomly assigned to two groups. Lumbar joint mobilization was provided for 15 min, 5 times a week for 6 weeks to patients who were allocated into the experimental group. Patients who were allocated into the control group received a…sham intervention. Trunk function (trunk impairment scale), postural balance (weight distribution, Berg balance scale, and timed up and go test), and walking (10 m walk test, functional gait assessment, step length, and stride length) were evaluated before and after the experiment for all the patients. RESULTS: Lumbar joint mobilization significantly improved trunk function, postural balance, and gait compared with pre-test values in the experimental group (P < 0.05). Significant differences were seen in trunk function, postural balance, and walking between the two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lumbar joint mobilization might be an effective intervention for trunk function, postural balance, and walking in patients with stroke.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The multifidus muscle plays a major role in the growth and postural control of children. Therefore, the reference values of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbar multifidus muscle represent an important tool for assessing muscle development and the early monitoring of musculoskeletal disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide percentile scores for the CSA of the lumbar multifidus muscle in eutrophic children aged 5 to 10 years. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, observational study, involving 736 children. An anthropometric assessment was conducted and ultrasound (US) imaging was used…to assess the CSA of the lumbar (vertebral level L5) multifidus muscle. The CSA was expressed as percentile scores. RESULTS: The CSA in the boys ranged from 1.8 cm 2 to 5.3 cm 2 and in girls from 1.9 cm 2 to 5.9 cm. The CSA in the 50 th percentile scores of both sexes was 3.4 cm 2 . There was an increase in the CSA between 5 and 7 years old in both sexes. The CSA presented a greater variance in girls than in boys. After 8 years of age, the multifidus CSA increased in girls and decreased in boys. CONCLUSION: The present study has provided percentile scores for the CSA of the lumbar multifidus muscle for eutrophic children aged 5 to 10 years. An increase was observed of the CSA of the multifidus muscle between the ages of 5 and 7 years and there were no differences in the CSA percentiles in relation to sex. An increase in the CSA after 8 years of age was only observed in the girls.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, a worldwide disease that disturbs the elderly. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to comprehensively compare the clinical efficacy of unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty (UPKP) and bilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty (BPKP) when treating OVCFs and evaluate their ability to maintain the outcomes in a 2-year follow-up. METHODS: From January 2015 to December 2016 a total of 79 patients with OVCFs were included in the study. They were divided into UPKP group and BPKP group. Subsequently, perioperative data, radiological outcomes, clinical outcomes,…and complications were compared between two groups. The follow-up consultation was 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the operation. RESULTS: 37 of patients (14 males, 23 females) were allocated to the UPKP group and 42 patients (13 males, 29 females) were treated with BPKP. The duration of operation and injected cement volume were significantly higher in the BPKP group than those of the UPKP group. BPKP achieved significantly higher improvement in middle height and volume of the fractured vertebral body than UPKP did. There were significantly higher losses of anterior, middle height and volume of the fractured vertebral body in the UPKP group at 2-year follow-up than in the BPKP group. At the final follow-up, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) of BPKP group was lower than that of UPKP group. CONCLUSION: Both UPKP and BPKP achieve satisfactory radiological and clinical outcomes when treating OVCFs. However, in a 2-year follow-up, BPKP maintains vertebral height restoration, volume of vertebral body, and ODI better than UPKP do.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Length of stay and functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are related to the timing and intensity of post-operative rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of early and high-intensity rehabilitation after simultaneous bilateral TKA. METHODS: Prospective cohort data of 156 patients (11 men and 145 women; average age 72.0 ± 5.6 years) who underwent simultaneous bilateral primary TKA were analyzed. The intervention group (n = 82) underwent a high-intensity rehabilitation (phase II) after early postoperative standard rehabilitation (phase I) between June 2019 and…May 2021. The control group (n = 74) underwent a lower-intensity rehabilitation (phase II) after phase I rehabilitation between July 2017 and May 2019. The timed up-and-go (TUG) test, timed stair climbing test (SCT), 6-minute walk test, isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of both knees, knee flexion and extension range of motion, Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain, stiffness, and functional levels, and the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire were assessed preoperatively and 6 weeks after TKA. RESULTS: The average length of hospital stay was shortened by 5.7 days (p < 0.001). Phase II rehabilitation started earlier in the intervention group than in the control group (7.7 ± 1.3 vs 13.5 ± 2.0, p < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvements in the measures of mobility (WOMAC-function and SCT) and strength (isometric strength of both knee extensors and flexors) 6 weeks after TKA by statistically controlling for age and preoperative functional status. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that early and high-intensity rehabilitation could achieve functional improvement and shorten the length of hospital stay.
Keywords: Rehabilitation, length of stay, knee, arthroplasty