Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 32, issue 1
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Working body schema (WBS) of the limbs may be indirectly assessed using left/right limb judgement (LRLJ) task performance. This study aimed to investigate if: 1) Total Knee Replacement (TKR) patients perform LRLJ tasks with reference to their WBS; 2) patients have a disrupted WBS following a TKR for the replaced knee compared to the contralateral knee; and 3) lower limb-based LRLJ task performance changes following post-surgical rehabilitation using change in upper limb-based LRLJ task performance as a control. METHODS: In a convenience sample (n = 18, age 69 ±…7 yrs, 12F 6M) of TKR patients < 1 month post-surgery, WBS was assessed using LRLJ task performance for the upper (pictures of the hand) and lower limb (pictures of the foot) before and after rehabilitation. Accuracy and response time (RT) were analysed using a series of 2 × 2 × 2 ANOVAs. RESULTS: LRLJ task performance for images corresponding with the operated and non-operated side were comparable for accuracy (p = 0.83) and RT (p = 0.28). Accuracy for hand images was comparable from baseline to post-rehabilitation (p = 0.54) whereas accuracy for feet images increased significantly (p = 0.03). Responses for awkward posture images were significantly slower than for more natural posture images (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LRLJ task performance data reflected the typical biomechanical constraints indicative of implicit motor imagery being performed by patients. There was no evidence of a disrupted LRLJ task performance for the replaced knee compared to the contralateral knee. Following post-surgical rehabilitation, patients’ lower limb LRLJ task performance improved whilst upper limb LRLJ task performance remained unchanged. These findings are the first to show that WBS improves with rehabilitation following TKR, and this may explain some of the clinical improvements observed. Undertaking LRLJ tasks could theoretically be a useful adjunct to current post-TKR rehabilitation.
Keywords: Total knee replacement, working body schema, implicit motor imagery
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Stroke is the most common neurological disease that is associated with deglutition disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia risk factors in post-stroke elderly inpatients. METHOD: We consecutively enrolled 212 stroke patients over sixty years of age from July 2014 to June 2015. Seventeen patients were eliminated. Stroke patients’ demographics, clinical symptoms and biochemistry data were collected. Modified water swallowing test was used for the assessment of deglutition difficulty. These inpatients were classified into two groups: territorial anterior circulation infarction (n = 114) and territorial posterior circulation…infarction (n = 82). Finally, dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia risk factor were analyzed between these two groups. RESULT: Number of previous cerebral infarction, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, masticatory muscle paralysis, abolition of gag reflex were correlated with the deglutition difficulty in these patients. In addition, NIHSS score (p = 0.017) and dysphagia (p = 0.02) were correlated with aspiration pneumonia. CONCLUSION: In stroke inpatients over sixty years of age, it is necessary to distinguish the patients with multiple previous cerebral infarctions, high NIHSS score, masticatory muscle paralysis, and abolition of gag reflex for early detection and rehabilitation of dysphagia.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The origin of about 10% of tumors located in the intracranial region is the cerebellopontine angle. Therefore Cerebellopontine Angle (CPA) tumors affect patients’ balance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the balance in individuals who underwent surgery for CPA tumors with healthy individuals. METHODS: Thirty patients who were being followed-up by the Department of Neurosurgery and had been operated on CPA tumor and 31 healthy individuals were included in the study as group 1 and group 2, respectively. The participants were evaluated using Romberg Test, Sharpened Romberg Test, One-leg…Stance (OLS), Tandem Walking, Walk Across, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Short Form 36 (SF-36). RESULTS: In comparison of the groups, OLS tests (p < 0.001), BBS (p < 0.05) and DHI (p < 0.05) were significantly different in favor of healthy group. SF-36 results revealed a significant difference between the groups, except for Bodily Pain and Vitality (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated a decrease in balance parameters and quality of life in individuals who underwent CPA tumor surgery in comparison to healthy individuals. Evaluation of balance in the preoperative and postoperative period should not be ignored in these patients and they are suggested to start rehabilitation in the early postoperative period.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A small body of data exists concerning psychosocial issues in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) subjected to soft braces. No study was yet performed on the detailed psychosocial implications in AIS patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychosocial implications of the flexible SpineCor with the Cheneau orthosis in AIS females. METHODS: Patients (aged 10–18 years) deliberately assigned to undergo SpineCor (SC group, 30 patients) or Cheneau brace (Ch group, 41 patients) intervention completed the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22), the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ), the Brace Questionnaire (BrQ) and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument…(PODCI). RESULTS: Concerning the BrQ, study groups differ in regards to emotional functioning (p = 0.014), vitality (p = 0.022) and social functioning (p = 0.048), indicating better functioning in the Ch group. Considering the SAQ, the Ch group assesses body curve (p = 0.024) less critically. Regarding the PODCI, the Ch group scored higher in the Global Functioning Scale (p = 0.023), the Upper Extremity and Physical Function Scale (p = 0.000), the Transfer and Basic Mobility Scale (p = 0.088), the Pain/Comfort Scale (p = 0.009) and the Happiness Scale (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that patients treated with the rigid brace assess their vitality, physical function, emotional and social functioning better and are less critical towards body curve, in comparison to patients treated with the SpineCor.
Keywords: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, SpineCor, Cheneau brace, self-esteem, health perception
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measures assessing self-reported disability, pain, and function are primary endpoints for determination of optimal treatment strategies in hand-related conditions. In this study, we aimed to compare responsiveness of Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH), and Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) in patients with traumatic hand injury. METHODS: Consecutive patients with traumatic hand injury who were referred to our polyclinic for rehabilitation were included in the study. Depending on clinical status, patients underwent at least 14 sessions of physical therapy consisting of infrared heating, water submersion ultrasound,…electrical stimulation, and exercise. MHQ, DASH, and DHI questionnaires were filled in by all patients both before and 3 months after physical therapy. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. MHQ (ES = - 1.89; SRM = - 1.84), DASH (ES = 1.66; SRM = 1.40), and DHI (ES = 1.68; SRM = 1.48) were all highly responsive in traumatic hand injuries. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that MHQ, DASH, and DHI are very responsive questionnaires for detection of treatment-induced changes in patients with traumatic hand injury. We suggest that when it is only intended to assess hand disability or when a quick assessment is desirable, DASH or DHI are more suitable, whereas MHQ will be more useful when a more detailed assessment including pain and aesthetical concerns is required.
Keywords: Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire, Duruöz Hand Index, responsiveness, traumatic hand injury
Abstract: BACKGROUND: For treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders pains to be successful, drug interventions are required. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the Rational Drug Use Knowledge Level (RDUKL) in patients with musculoskeletal disorders and some relevant factors. METHOD: The study was carried out in October 2017 on patients treated in the Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Hospital in Turkey. The prepared questionnaire and RDUKL scale were administered to 239 patients by face-to-face interviews. The ANOVA test, chi-squared test and logistic regression model were used for the statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Forty-three…percent of the study group was found to have Rational Drug Use Knowledge (RDUK). The patients who used medicines under family supervision had twice as much RDUK as those who did not use medicines under family supervision, and those who were university graduates had six times as much RDUK as those who had primary education or below. Scale score was found to be low in patients with fibromyalgia and high in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RDUKL was found to be low in the group with chronic diseases and high average age. Besides training, it is important to provide patients with family support about their illness and its treatment. Thus, positive contributions can be made to the increase of the RDUKL.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Trunk-pelvic mal-alignment and postural control deficit are common problems facing children with cerebral palsy (CP). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of trunk and pelvic alignment with postural control in children with diplegic CP. METHODS: Seventy seven children with spastic diplegic CP, aged from 6 to 8 years with level II on Gross Motor Function Classification System, participated in this study. Trunk imbalance, lateral deviation of the spine and pelvic tilt were evaluated by using Formetric instrumentation system while postural control was assessed by using Pediatric Balance…Scale. RESULTS: The results showed that there was a moderate negative correlation of trunk imbalance, lateral deviation of the spine and pelvic tilt with postural control (- 0.44, - 0.59 and - 0.57, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Increased trunk imbalance, lateral deviation of the spine and pelvic tilt may be associated with decreased postural control ability in children with diplegic CP.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, diplegia, postural control, trunk and pelvic alignment
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common type of musculoskeletal pain, thus it is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. The physicians who are primarily responsible for the nonsurgical management of LBP are physiatrists. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the approaches of physiatrists to low back pain across Europe. Preferences, tendencies, and priorities in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of LBP, as well as the epidemiological data pertaining to LBP in PRM practice were evaluated in this Europe-wide study. METHODS: The study was…conducted under the control of the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) Musculoskeletal Disorders Research Committee. A total of 576 physiatrists from most European countries participated in the survey. RESULTS: The results show that physiatrists frequently deal with patients with LBP in their daily practice. Most patients are not referred to other departments and are treated with various conservative methods. Less than one-fifth of patients are primarily referred for surgery. The physiatrists believe that a clear diagnosis to account for cases of low back pain is rarely established. The most common diagnosis is discopathy. History and physical examination remain the most valuable clinical evaluation tools for low back pain according to physiatrists. Less than half the patients require a magnetic resonance imaging. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs for low back pain. Exercise, back care information, and physical therapy are the preferred conservative treatments. More than half of the physiatrists offer interventional treatments to patients with low back pain. CONCLUSION: The present study is a preliminary report that presents the attitudes of European physiatrists in the management of low back pain. Further researches are warranted to standardize the conservative management of LBP.
Keywords: Low back pain, physiatrist, conservative management, rehabilitation
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Footwear preferences and habits may be related to musculoskeletal system problems. This study was designed to determine the relationship between the selection of footwear, musculoskeletal problems and the affecting factors among university students from that different division. METHODS: Four hundred and sixty-six university students in the divisions of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation, Nursing and Business Administration participated in this study. The data was collected using a questionnaire developed by the researchers and the Extended Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the participants, 68.5% preferred to wear sports shoes; 24.0% of the participants had…foot pain. Comfort, robustness and quality come to the fore in the behavioural patterns of young and healthy individuals regarding footwear. Those who experienced foot and lower back pain considered such parameters as quality, fitness for foot health, flexibility and lightness in footwear. CONCLUSIONS: While patterns such as foot health, flexibility and lightness are reflected in the footwear preferences of those who have lower back pain, those who have pain or problems in their feet take into consideration the quality, lightness, fitness to foot health. The relationship determined in the present study shows that those who experience pain are more selective in their footwear preferences.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic non-specific low back is the most common musculoskeletal complaint that significantly affects the general population. Exercises are advocated as the main part of treatment for chronic low back pain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of workouts of the core musculature and routine physical therapy exercise training for the treatment of disability caused by chronic low back pain. METHODS: In this single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial, 120 patients with non-specific low back pain were examined in Lahore, Pakistan. They were randomly allocated into treatment groups A and…B. Group A performed core stabilization workouts and Group B had routine physical therapy. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to evaluate the outcome of each treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v16.0 and a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Significant reduction in disability was observed in both groups at the end of the second, fourth, and sixth week of treatment (p value < 0.05). The mean reduction in disability as measured by ODI score was 39.44 ± 14.64 for Group A and 31.91 ± 12.31 for Group B. CONCLUSION: A larger reduction in disability was observed for subjects treated with core stabilization exercises in comparison to those treated with routine physical therapy.
Keywords: Chronic low back pain, disability, Oswestry Disability Index