Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 30, issue 1
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The erector spinae is more resistant to fatigue in adult women than men. However, no study has reported the sex differences in back muscle fatigue in children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatigability of erector spinae in prepubertal children and adults, in both males and females. METHODS: Fourteen prepubertal boys, 13 prepubertal girls, 14 adult men, and 13 adult women performed the Sørensen back isometric endurance test until exhaustion. The results of electromyographic (EMG) power spectral analysis of erector spinae were compared between both age groups and…sexes. RESULTS: The slopes of EMG power spectral median and mean power frequency were significantly higher in males than in females, in both age groups. Furthermore, the slopes were significantly lower in prepubertal children than in adults, in both males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed major differences in the fatigue threshold of the erector spinae between boys and girls and children and adults. The muscle fatigued faster in prepubertal boys and adult men than in prepubertal girls and adult women. In both sexes, a lower slope of EMG power spectrum parameters of the erector spinae was noted during endurance test in prepubertal children compared to adults.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to measure the rotational angle defect between fracture ends in paediatric forearm diaphyseal fractures on radiographs. METHODS: Evaluations were performed on 78 paediatric patients who presented at the emergency department with a diaphyseal forearm fracture during 2013-2014. Thirty-two patients who underwent conservative treatment and had < 10° of angulation and translation of not more than half the bone diameter after application of a plaster cast were included in the study. A rotational formula was used with diameter values to determine changes. The degree of rotation of both ends of…the fracture line and the forearm rotational defect of the fracture line were calculated. FINDINGS: Fractures included an isolated radius in 16 cases, an isolated ulna in four cases, and both bones in 12 cases. The mean lateral angular (LAT-θ) value was 26.13 ± 5.93° on the proximal fracture end, and the distal mean LAT-θ was 30.29 ± 6.24° (p = 0.037). The mean proximal anteroposterior angular (AP-θ) value was 26.83 ± 5.75°, and the distal mean AP-θ was 30.58 ± 7.27° (p = 0.008). A significant correlation was detected between the AP-Δ and LAT-Δ measurements (p = 0.883). INTERPRETATION: The rotational defect was mathematically calculated directly from radiographs using a rotational measurement formula.
Keywords: Direct radiograph, forearm diaphyseal fracture, rotation measurement
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of extra corporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) on the calcaneal spur length and pain severity in overweight and obese patients with symptomatic calcaneal spur. METHODS: In eighty patients with symptomatic calcaneal spur, ESWT was administered on days 0 and 7, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores and calcaneal spur lengths (CSLs) before and 3 months later after treatment were recorded. A lateral heel radiograph was used for computer-aided linear measurements of CSL. RESULTS: Of 80 patients, 59 (73.7%) were female and 21 were male (26.3%); age was…45.9 ± 8.3 years; BMI was 31.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ; and symptom duration was 2.3 ± 2.4 years. The CSL and VAS score after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (CSL before vs. after: 5.7 ± 1.0 vs. 4.4 ± 0.9, p = 0.001; VAS score before vs. after: 8.3 ± 1.4 vs. 4.6 ± 2.2; p = 0.03). The CSLs before and after treatment had a significant strong correlation (r = 0.832, p = 0.001). The VAS scores before and after treatment presented a significant mild correlation (r = 0.242, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In overweight and obese patients with symptomatic calcaneal spur, ESWT reduces the CSL and pain severity during a follow-up of three-month duration.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that stress is implicated in the cause of neck pain (NP). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a simple, zero cost stress management program on patients suffering from NP. METHODS: This study is a parallel-type randomized clinical study. People suffering from chronic non-specific NP were chosen randomly to participate in an eight week duration program of stress management (N= 28) (including diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation) or in a no intervention control condition (N= 25). Self-report measures were used for the evaluation of…various variables at the beginning and at the end of the eight-week monitoring period. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: At the end of the monitoring period, the intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction of stress and anxiety (p= 0.03, p= 0.01), report of stress related symptoms (p= 0.003), percentage of disability due to NP (p= 0.000) and NP intensity (p= 0.002). At the same time, daily routine satisfaction levels were elevated (p= 0.019). No statistically significant difference was observed in cortisol measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Stress management has positive effects on NP patients.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many studies reported that the morbidity of the respiratory and circulatory diseases is higher among smokers than non-smokers. Some recent studies reported the effects of smoking on the musculoskeletal system. However, it is difficult to generalize the experimental environment because it is different from activities of daily living environment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in the activation of abdominal muscles during trunk extension between smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 smokers and 15 non-smokers). The percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction…(%MVIC) values of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique and transversus abdominis(IO&TrA) were measured using the surface electromyography System. RESULTS: The results showed no significant differences in the %MVIC of RA and EO between smokers and non-smokers. However, the %MVIC of IO&TrA showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. The %MVIC of IO&TrA of non-smokers was higher. CONCLUSIONS: The non-smokers showed greater activation of deep abdominal muscles than smokers did.
Keywords: Activation of abdominal muscles, smokers, non-smokers, trunk extension
Abstract: Suprascapular nerve injury is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of shoulder dysfunction. The non-specific clinical features of suprascapular nerve injury can make diagnosis difficult. However, it is essential for clinicians to consider it as part of the differential diagnoses in patients with vague pain or sensory disturbances over the posterosuperior part of their shoulder or have unexplained atrophy and weakness of their supraspinatus or infraspinatus muscle. Electrodiagnostic studies are useful in confirming and localising the nerve injury, while MRIs can be employed to determine the cause of nerve injury and assess the integrity of the rotator cuff muscles.…Isolated suprascapular nerve injury can be managed with a trial of conservative management for at least 6 months. Subsequently, decompression of the nerve through open or arthroscopic techniques can be considered - both are associated with high rates of pain relief and functional improvement.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is believed to have a role in the development of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Ceruloplasmin (CP), an acute phase protein, is known to limit inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate CP levels in patients with LDH. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with LDH and 35 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Participants were divided into two groups; group 1 (n = 35) consisted of patients with LDH, and group 2 (n = 35) consisted of healthy subjects. Surgery specimens were taken from all patients who underwent LDH-related surgery. CP levels were measured in…both blood and tissue samples. Pain intensity was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in gender, age, or body mass index between the control and LDH patients (p > 0.05 for all). Compared with the control patients, LDH patients had significantly higher serum CP levels (p < 0.001). In LDH patients, tissue CP levels were significantly higher than serum levels (p < 0.001). According to bivariate analysis, the serum CP levels were significantly correlated with the VAS score in group 1 (r = 0.491, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that CP levels increased in both the serum and the tissues of patients with LDH compared to patients without LDH, possibly as a consequence of LDH-associated inflammation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cervical Spondylosis (CS) is a degenerative and painful pathology, which needs conservative treatment to relieve symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the effects of Mulligan's mobilization (MM) and Kinesio taping (KT) on pain, range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, and function in CS. METHODS: Forty-five subjects were randomly placed into three groups: Group 1: control group (conventional rehabilitation-CR); Group 2: MM and CR; Group 3: KT and CR. Assessments including neck pain, cervical ROM, muscle strength and Neck Disability index (NDI) were conducted at baseline, after three-week treatment, and at one-month…follow up. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA. RESULTS: In all groups, pain and NDI scores reduced, cervical ROM and muscle strength increased with time (p< 0.001). Greater improvements in neck extension, left and right rotation were obtained in the KT and MM groups when compared to the control group (p< 0.05). In the KT group, improvement in right lateral flexion ROM was greater than the control and deep cervical flexor muscle strength was greater than the MM and the control groups (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: KT and MM contributed to CR for increasing cervical ROM and deep cervical flexor muscle strength in patients with CS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain is frequently observed in haemodialysis patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare haemodialysis patients with or without shoulder pain in terms of shoulder motion ranges, β2 microglobulin levels and magnetic resonance imaging findings. METHODS: Forty-three patients undergoing dialysis were enrolled, of which 23 patients had explicit shoulder pain at night, which appeared during dialysis. Range of joint motion was evaluated. β 2 microglobulin value was recorded. MRI was used to evaluate rotator cuff tendons for thickness, homogeneity, integrity and presence of effusion. RESULTS: Ranges of motion were significantly lower…in the painful shoulder group. Supraspinatus tendon thickness and the number of areas with effusion were higher in the painful group. There was a positive correlation between the β 2 microglobulin level and supraspinatus (r:0.352 p< 0.05) and subscapular (r:0.454 p< 0.05) tendon thicknesses. While effusion areas and pain (r:0.351 p< 0.05) showed positive correlation, there was a negative correlation between pain and shoulder motion ranges. CONCLUSIONS: Shoulder pain in dialysis patients can be related with tendon thickness and effusion. While the β 2 microglobulin level affects tendon thickness, it has no relation to pain and movement constraint.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Psychological risk factors have shown to be important prognostic indicators of back surgery outcome. Prevalence of these risk factors has rarely been examined in an outpatient clinic population. Furthermore, it is unclear to which extent they play a role, in absence of routinely used psychological screening tools, in treatment assignment. OBJECTIVE: First aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychological risk factors in back pain patients at an orthopaedic outpatient clinic. Second aim was to investigate the prognostic value of these identified risk factors in treatment assignment by the orthopaedic surgeons (conservative…vs. surgery). METHODS: Sixty-six adult back pain patients were included. Psychological risk factor prevalence was determined with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Prognostic value of these risk factors in treatment assignment was examined using statistics. RESULTS: Respectively, 30 (45% HADS Anxiety), 27 (41%, HADS Depression), 19 (29%, PCS) and 37 (56%, TSK) patients scored above cut-off. No prognostic value of risk factors in treatment assignment, was found. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients in our study is at risk of poor surgical outcome due to presence of psychological risk factors. Future studies should target the development of screening tools for an early identification of those at risk.
Keywords: Back pain, surgery, psychological, risk factors, screening