Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 29, issue 4
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Knee proprioception in the sagittal plane has been widely investigated in prospective studies, however limited information is known about proprioceptive acuity during active knee rotation and the way most commonly injured. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether proprioceptive acuity during active internal and external knee rotation varies at different ranges in the transverse plane. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (N: 26) without previous injury or surgery of the knee joint participated in the study.Knee rotation proprioceptive acuity was measured using a custom-designed device. The measure of proprioceptive acuity used in this study was the just-noticeable-difference (JND).…Participants actively rotated the knee at different intervals(initial, mid, and terminal internal or external rotation range) to one of four movement blocks and the magnitude of the permitted motion was judged. RESULTS: The means of the JND for proprioceptive acuity at initial internal rotation (0.80° ± 0.06) were significantly (p< 0.002) lower than for mid (1.62° ± 0.18), and terminal (2.08° ± 0.35) internal rotation. The means of the JND for proprioceptive acuity at initial external rotation (1.16° ± 0.10) were significantly (p< 0.04) lower than for mid (1.95° ± 0.30), and terminal (1.97° ± 0.24) internal rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Participants perceived smaller differences between active internal and external rotation movements at initial rotation range than at the mid and terminal rotation range of movement. This suggests better proprioceptive acuity at the initial rotation range of movement in the transverse plane.
Keywords: Proprioception, knee, JND, range intervals
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To reveal correlates of shoulder pain in wheelchair basketball players from the Japanese national team. METHODS: Study participants were 19 males (29.7 ± 5.2 years) and 21 females (29.0 ± 8.2 years) players. We assessed shoulder pain using the wheelchair user's shoulder pain index (WUSPI). As potential correlates of shoulder pain, age, ability class, practice time and years of experience in wheelchair basketball were collected. RESULTS: The total WUSPI score for men (16.18 ± 17.39 points) was significantly higher than that for women (8.62 ± 15.70 points). In…men, higher age was significantly correlated with greater shoulder pain for total WUSPI score and on two WUSPI items. Lower ability in wheelchair basketball was correlated with men's greater shoulder pain on three WUSPI items. In men, there were also significant correlations between longer years of experience and greater shoulder pain for total WUSPI score and on three WUSPI items. For women, there were significant correlations between longer practice time and less pain for total WUSPI score and on four WUSPI items. CONCLUSIONS: Because top male wheelchair basketball players have a higher risk of shoulder pain than female players, daily care of shoulder and periodic medical checkups are needed, especially for older male players with lower ability and more experience.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is characterized by pain and disability of shoulder. Various treatment methods have been used for SIS. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound (US) on pain, disability, anxiety, depression, sleep quality and quality of life in patients with SIS. METHODS: Patients with SIS were randomly divided into two groups, including the group 1 (continuous US group; 3 MHz, 1.5 W/cm2 , n = 26) and group 2 (sham US group, n = 24). Additionally, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) + exercise program…were added in both groups. Pain and disability of the shoulder were assessed by the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), while anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. Quality of life was evalutaed by the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after end of three weeks. RESULTS: Both groups had significantly improvements in terms of SPADI-pain, SPADI-disability, SPADI-total, NHP-pain and NHP-sleep scores after the three weeks interventions. There were significantly improvements in the Group 1 in terms of PSQI-total, and NHP-physical activity. Group 2 had significantly improvements in terms of anxiety-HADS, depression-HADS and NHP-emotional reaction scores. In the inter-group comparison, there were no significantly differences in the change scores were observed in any domains of SPADI scores, anxiety, depression and sleep scores, or any NHP scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that US does not have any benefits on SIS. TENS + exercise program are not effective on anxiety, depression and fatigue, however TENS +$ exercise program are effective on pain, disability and sleep disturbance in patients with SIS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive activity of the tibialis anterior muscle may be a causal mechanism in overuse injuries such as stress fracture in pes planus patients. However, information about this relationship is limited. In this study, we compared the angle of the medial longitudinal arch, the activities of the abductor hallucis and tibialis anterior muscles, and the activity ratio of tibialis anterior/abductor hallucis in individuals with pes planus and those with a neutral foot position during short-foot exercises conducted while sitting. METHODS: Differences between the groups were analyzed using an independent t-test. In all, 28 university…students participated in this study (14 subjects in each group). RESULTS: The activity of the abductor hallucis muscle was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and the activity ratio of tibialis anterior/abductor hallucis was significantly greater (p = 0.012) in the pes planus group than in the neutral foot group during the exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should recognize that pes planus patients may compensate for reduced activation of the abductor hallucis to maintain the angle of the medial longitudinal arch during the sitting short-foot exercise.
Keywords: Abductor hallucis, pes planus, short-foot exercise, tibialis anterior
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in…this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. RESULTS: We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT to a conventional treatment regime. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Randomized trial (Level II)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic neck pain show also respiratory dysfunctions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on chronic neck pain. METHODS: In this pilot study (single-subject design: 3 baseline measurements, 4 measurements during RMET), 15 neck patients (49.3 ± 13.7 years; 13 females) conducted 20 sessions of home-based RMET using a SpiroTiger® (normocapnic hyperpnoea). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (Pimax ) and expiratory (Pemax ) pressure were measured before and after RMET. Neck flexor endurance, cervical and thoracic mobility, forward head posture, chest wall expansion…and self-assessed neck disability [Neck Disability Index (NDI), Bournemouth questionnaire] were weekly assessed. Repeated measure ANOVA (Bonferroni correction) compared the first and last baseline and the last measurement after RMET. RESULTS: RMET significantly increased MVV (p= 0.025), Pimax (p= 0.001) and Pemax (p< 0.001). During RMET, neck disability significantly decreased (NDI: p= 0.001; Bournemouth questionnaire: p= 0.002), while neck flexor endurance (p< 0.001) and chest wall expansion (p< 0.001) increased. The changes in respiratory and musculoskeletal parameters did not correlate. CONCLUSIONS: RMET emerged from this pilot study as a feasible and effective therapy for reducing disability in patients with chronic neck pain. The underlying mechanisms, including blood gas analyses, need further investigation in a randomized controlled study.
Keywords: Neck pain, respiratory dysfunction, respiratory muscle endurance training
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with a variety of chronic diseases. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: This study included 90 patients with mild to moderate CTS and assessed their routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Additionally, the pain level of each subject was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questionnaire (DN4). RESULTS: The severity levels of CTS were at a 75% mild level in the vitamin D deficiency group and a 47.1%…mild level in the vitamin D normal group, with a significant difference between groups (p = 0.008). Correlation analyses revealed positive correlations between body mass index and DN4 scores (r = 0.499, p = 0.025) and between vitamin D levels and CTS severity (r = 0.364, p = 0.004) in the vitamin D deficiency group. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that CTS may be triggered by vitamin D deficiency, and that the severity of CTS was correlated with vitamin D levels in the deficiency group. Additionally, there was a correlation between weight gain and neuropathic pain intensity in CTS patients with vitamin D deficiency. The present findings indicate that vitamin D levels should be assessed in CTS patients.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the distal femoral cartilage thickness of the non-amputee sides in patients who had unilateral transfemoral amputation with those of healthy subjects by using ultrasound. METHODS: Thirty transfemoral amputees (27 male, 3 female) and 30 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included. Functional usage of the prosthesis was evaluated by using Houghton score. The cartilage thickness was measured from the following midpoints; medial femoral condyle (MFC), intercondylar area, and lateral femoral condyle. RESULTS: Thirty patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation (mean age; 38.6 ± 9.5 years) and 30 healthy…controls (mean age; 38.4 ± 9.4 years) were included. Although femoral cartilage thicknesses were found to be lower for all measurements in the amputees, the difference reached significance only in the MFC (p= 0.031). In the patient group, cartilage thickness values did not correlate with age, duration of amputation, daily walking time, stump length or Houghton score. CONCLUSION: The distal femoral cartilage thickness seems to be decreased medially on the non-amputee sides of the transfemoral amputees when compared with the healthy subjects. Further studies concerning the follow-up designs, functional parameters and osteoarthritis scales are awaited.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Soft tissue injuries may co-occur with tibial plateau fractures. These injuries may include medial or lateral ligament ruptures, peroneal nerve lesions, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, and meniscus tears. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of meniscus tears in lateral tibial plateau fractures and to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of meniscus repairs. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study included 19 patients who underwent surgery for a closed lateral tibial plateau fracture. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the knee, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations, were undertaken…for all cases. The clinical and radiological evaluation of the surgical treatment results was performed according to the Rasmussen criteria. RESULTS: Meniscus lesions were found in 10 (52.6%) patients. Nine meniscus tears were found in patients with type 2 fractures, and one meniscus tear was found in a patient with a type 3 fracture. All of the menisci were separated from the peripheral capsule adhesion point. On the MRI examination during follow-up, all of the repaired lateral menisci were determined to be in their original anatomic location. CONCLUSION: For successful outcomes in lateral plateau fractures, it is essential to determine whether there is a meniscus tear. In cases with meniscus tears, meniscus repair can be easily performed and should be considered because it has a positive impact on the treatment outcome.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a painful condition that affects the tendinous tissue of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and leads to loss of function of the affected limb. Therefore it can have a major impact on the patient's social and personal life. Many treatments are recommended for lateral epicondylitis; unfortunately the evidence is limited. OBJECTIVES: The aim of study was to investigate the effect of kinesio taping (KT) on pain, grip strength and function in patients LE. METHODS: Thirty-one (23 females, 8 males) patients with LE were included. KT was applied…twice a week for 2 weeks. Pain at rest, activity of daily living (ADL), night and palpation on lateral epicondyle was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS 0-10 cm), and the grip strength was measured with a hand held dynamometer. The stage of the disease was evaluated by the Nirschl score and the functional status was assessed with Patient-Rated Forearm Evaluation Questionnaire (PRTEQ) score. These parameters were evaluated before, at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after treatment. Patients' satisfaction was also recorded on a Likert scale after treatment at 2 weeks and 6 weeks. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 43.58 ± 9.02. The dominant limb was affected in 64.5% (20) of the patients. After the application of KT on lateral epicondyle, there was a significant improvement in all parameters in terms of pain, Nirschl score, hand grip strength, patient satisfaction, and PRTEQ scores at 2 and 6 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Kinesio taping can be an effective treatment method in LE. This application improves pain, grip strength and functional status of the patients with LE.