Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 29, issue 3
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training is one of the core components of multifactorial fall-prevention programs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of Tai Chi and combined exercise prescription that consists of three main components of an exercise prescription on static balance, dynamic balance, fear of falling and mood. METHODS: Sixty older adults aged 55-76 were randomly assigned to Group 1 (Tai Chi exercise) or Group 2 (combined exercise prescription). Exercise was performed three times a week over a period of 12 weeks. Single Leg-Stance-Eyes Open (SLS-EO), Single Leg-Stance Eyes Closed (SLS-EC), computerized balance measurements, the…Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the elderly (SAFFE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were assessed before and after the final training session. RESULTS: Both exercise groups yielded better results in dynamic balance assessments (TUG and BBS) at the 12th week (p< 0.05). Group 1 also showed significant improvements in the measurements of SLS-EO, SLS-EC, SAFFE, GDS, and BDS during the post-intervention period (all p< 0.05). When the groups were compared, a significant difference was found between groups in favor of Group 1 in terms of the SLS-EO and SAFFE (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that Tai Chi may be a more successful exercise intervention for factors-related to falls in older people.
Keywords: Tai Ji, Tai Chi, balance, frail elderly, falls
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of the Multi-disciplinary Orthopaedics Rehabilitation Empowerment (MORE) Program on reducing chronic disability among injured workers and improving efficiency of work rehabilitation process. METHODS: A cohort of patients with workplace injuries in the lower back were recruited from orthopaedics clinics and assigned to either MORE group (n= 139) or control group (n= 106). Patients in MORE group received an early MRI screening and a coordinated multi-disciplinary management, while patients in the control group received conventional care. Outcome variables are time to return-to-work (RTW) from date of…injury, waiting time for MRI screening and time to medical assessment board (MAB). RESULTS: Patients in the MORE Program had significantly shorter duration for RTW (MORE: 6.1 months, Control: 12.8 months, p< 0.01), and more RTW cases (n= 64, 46.0%) compared to Control group (n= 29, 27.4%). The MORE group also had much shorter waiting time for MRI scans (91.85 vs. 309.2 days, p< 0.001) and MAB referral after MRI scans (97.2 vs. 178.9 days, p= 0.001) compared to Control group. CONCLUSIONS: The MORE Program which emphasizes early intervention and early MRI screening, is shown to be effective in shortening sick leave and improving RTW outcomes of injured workers.
Keywords: Low back pain, return-to-work, case management, worker's compensation
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hyperkyphosis with unknown reason is common in teenagers and can be corrected by orthotic management. OBJECTIVES: Investigation of orthotic outcomes by Milwaukee brace. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with idiopathic hyperkyphosis (> 45 degrees) were given Milwaukee brace before skeletal maturity. Hyperkyphosis was measured during the first visit without brace, in-brace, at the end of full-time and part time duration of treatment. After treatment completion, participants were categorized in two groups: with hyperkyphosis of 45 degrees and less (Group I) and more than 45 degrees (Group II). These groups were compared to interpret the…treatment outcomes. RESULTS: The mean kyphotic curve was 60.1 (SD ± 7.7) and 71 (SD = 10.1) degrees in Group I and II, respectively. The mean kyphotic curve at the time of full time and part time duration of treatment showed no significant difference in patients successfully completed the treatment (P = 0.10) while there was a significant difference between mean kyphotic curve in full time and part time treatment duration for patients with hyperkyphosis of more than 45 degrees (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperkyphosis of less than 70 degrees can be treated if the in-brace correction is saved in part-time duration.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of hand grip training on shoulder joint internal rotation (IR)/external rotation (ER) peak torque for healthy people. METHODS: The research was conducted on 23 healthy adults in their 20 s-30 s who volunteered to participate in the experiment. Hand grip power test was performed on both hands of the research subjects before/after the test to study changes in hand grip power. Isokinetic machine was used to measure the concentric IRPT (internal rotation peak torque) and concentric ERPT (external rotation peak torque) at the…velocity of 60°/sec, 90°/sec, and 180°/sec before/after the test. Hand grip training was performed daily on the subject's right hand only for four weeks according to exercise program. Finally, hand grip power of both hands and the maximum torque values of shoulder joint IR/ER were measured before/after the test and analyzed. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the hand grip power of the right hand, which was subject to hand grip training, after the experiment. Also, statistically significant difference for shoulder ERPT was found at 60°/sec. CONCLUSION: Hand grip training has a positive effect on shoulder joint IRPT/ERPT and therefore can help strengthen muscles around the shoulder without using weight on the shoulder. Consequently, hand grip training would help maintain strengthen the muscles around the shoulder in the early phase of rehabilitation process after shoulder surgery.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between kinesiophobia (fear of movement), physical activity level and quality of life. METHODS: In this study, we assessed 112 patients consulting for low back pain (LBP) of ≥ 3 month's duration. We used Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain intensity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for physical activity level, Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale for perception of kinesiophobia, Oswestry Disability Index for disability status of low back. RESULTS: The results of this study, there was no statistically significant correlation between International Physical…Activity Questionnaire, duration of pain, intensity of pain at rest and Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale (p> 0.05). It was found a statistically significant correlation between pain intensity at activity (p= 0.009), disability level (p= 0.000) and Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale. Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale were highly negative correlated with sub-scale of SF-36 Quality of Life Index (general health, physical function, social status, bodily pain, role limitations due to physical health) (p= 0.000). CONCLUSION: The kinesiophobia adversely affect the quality of life limiting the physical activity status of patients with chronic low back pain.
Keywords: Chronic low back pain, Tampa Kinesiophobia Scale, physical activity level, quality of life
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lumbar Multifidus (LM) exercise is a treatment in patients with low back pain. We designed a new exercise using device ``Core-Noodle'' (Copyright has been observed in Japan). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to record the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lumbar multifidus during a novel exercise. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy young volunteers performed the LM exercise using Core-Noodle in three conditions: no-weight (NW), 1 kg weight (1W), 2 kg-weight (2W). This exercise was performed in supine with left shoulder abduct 90 degrees and right shoulder flexed 90 degrees. EMG activity was…recorded from surface electrodes on the LM and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum (ICLT), and normalized to values derived from maximal isometric trials (%MVIC). In addition, the ratio of the LM to ICLT (L/G ratio) was calculated to compare selectivity of LM activity. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni method were used to draw comparisons among the three conditions. RESULTS: Muscle activation of LM was gradually increased in proportion to the loading dose. L/G ratio increased by weight loading significantly, but slightly decreased at 2W. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that characteristic EMG patterns of LM ``selective contraction'' and ``adjustment of load'' are obtained concurrently.
Keywords: Lumbar multifidus (LM), low back pain (LBP), electromyography (EMG)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The musculoskeletal problems (MSP) vary among different occupations since they had different characteristics and physical workloads. Therefore, it is important to know the difference between the occupational groups to design preventing physiotherapy interventions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence differences of MSPs and related physical workload among hospital staff. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 416 hospital staff completed the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire for MSP and Physical Workload Questionnaire for assessing the physical workload. RESULTS: One-year prevalence of low back, neck, upper back, and shoulders were 73.8%, 59.9%, 59.4%, and 52.2%,…respectively. The most preventing MSPs from work found in the low back (39.2%), upper back (26.7%), and the neck (24.5%). MSP of low back impacted nurses the most with a 1-year prevalence of 81.3% and 57.1% of nurses were prevented from working. Nurses, service and cleaning staff had significantly more physical workload than secretaries and physicians. CONCLUSIONS: MSP of low back had the highest prevalence among hospital staff and it was the leading cause which prevented from working. Nurses were the most in danger in terms of MSPs among hospital staff. Physical workload was significantly higher in nurses, service and cleaning staff than secretaries and physicians.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: People with neck pain often present with weakness in the scapulothoracic muscles. Few studies have examined lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscle strength in individuals with neck pain, nor compared strength to asymptomatic individuals. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine LT, MT and SA muscle strength in individuals with chronic neck pain. METHODS: Descriptive cross sectional design. Twenty two individuals with chronic neck pain and 17 asymptomatic individuals were included. Participants were asked to complete a screening questionnaire, Neck Disability Index, and underwent manual…muscle testing for the LT, MT, and SA muscles bilaterally. Data analyses included paired and comparative independent t-tests. RESULTS: For individuals with neck pain, significant within subject differences in strength between sides for the LT (P< 0.01) and MT (P< 0.01) were present. In contrast, no within subject difference between sides for the asymptomatic group was found for any muscle. Individuals with neck pain were significantly weaker than asymptomatic individuals for the LT (p= 0.02), MT (p= 0.03), and SA (p= 0.01) on their side of neck pain, but not on their non-painful side. CONCLUSIONS: Significant within subject differences were found between sides for the LT and MT while significant between group differences were identified for all three muscles tested.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Whole Body Vibration (WBV) has been reported to change neuromuscular activity which indirectly assessed by electromyography (EMG). Although researches regarding the influence of WBV on EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles are in their infancy, contradictory findings have been reported as a result of dissimilar protocols. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of WBV on electromyography (EMG) activity of upper extremity muscles in static modified push up position. METHODS: Forty recreationally active females were randomly assigned in WBV and control groups. Participants in WBV group received…5 sets of 30 seconds vibration at 5 mm (peak to peak) and 30 Hz by using vibratory platform. No vibration stimulus was used in the control group. Surface EMG was recorded from Upper Trapezius (UT), Serratus Anterior (SA), Biceps Brachii (BB) and Triceps Brachii (TB) muscles before, during and after the vibration protocol while the subjects maintained the static modified push up position. EMG signals were expressed as root mean square (EMGrms) and normalized by maximum voluntary exertion (MVE). RESULTS: EMGrms activity of the studied muscles increased significantly during the vibration protocol in the WBV group comparing to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). The results indicated that vibration stimulus transmitting via hands increased muscle activity of UT, SA, BB and TB muscles by an average of 206%, 60%, 106% and 120%, respectively, comparing to pre vibration values. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that short exposure to the WBV could increase the EMGrms activity of the upper extremity muscles in the static modified push-up position. However, more sessions of WBV application require for a proper judgment.
Keywords: Electromyography, whole body vibration, upper limb muscles, modified push up
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether questionnaires measuring psychosocial constructs related to low back pain (LBP) that were originally designed for adults are suitable for adolescents, and if paper and web-versions have similar measurement properties. OBJECTIVES: To examine selected psychometric properties for the paper- and web-based Back-Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-phys) among adults and adolescents in two diverse countries and to determine whether differences existed between countries and pain groups. METHODS: A sample of 156 adults (Hong Kong, n= 75; Australia, n= 81) and 96 adolescents (Hong Kong,…n= 61; Australia, n= 35) participated in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Main effects for country and administration mode were observed in adult BBQ scores, where Australian adults reported significantly higher BBQ scores than Hong Kong adults (mean difference (MD); 95% CI: 2.85; 0.96-4.74) and significantly higher scores were recorded on the web mode compared to the paper mode (MD 0.74; 0.10-1.38). Similarly, Hong Kong adults and adolescents reported higher FABQ-phys scores than Australian adults and adolescents (MD; 95% CI: 3.40; 1.37-5.43 and 4.88; 0.53-9.23, respectively). Internal consistency values were mostly acceptable (α ≥ 0.7). CONCLUSION: Differences exist between cultures for LBP-related beliefs. The BBQ and FABQ-phys have acceptable measurement properties in both administration modes.
Keywords: Psychometrics, adult, adolescent, beliefs, low back pain