Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume 28, issue 3
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. DESIGN OF STUDY: A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines…cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. METHODS: Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. RESULTS: According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate sleep quality in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and its relationship with pain, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Two hundred patients with CLBP aged 20-78 years (mean: 50.2 years) and 200 sex- and age-matched pain-free healthy controls (HCs) aged 21-73 years (mean: 49.7 years) were included in this study. After lumbar region examination, in patients, pain was evaluated with the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), functional capacity with the Functional Rating Index (FRI), and health-related quality of life with the Short…Form-36 (SF-36). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality of both groups. The sleep quality was compared between the patients and HCs. In patients with CLBP, its relations with pain, functional status and HRQOL were also investigated. RESULTS: The patients had significantly higher total scores (8.1 ± 4.3, 4.6 ± 3.4, P< 0.001, respectively) and subscale scores (P< 0.001) for PSQI compared to HCs. The groups were only similar in use of sleeping medication (P> 0.05) Among the patients, sleep quality was worse in women, in the patients with complaints more than 11 years, in the patients with low back and two leg pain (P< 0.05). Mean scores of the FRI, SF-MPQ, and visual analog scale in the patients were 8.5 ± 3.0, 16.7 ± 8.0, 6.9 ± 1.2, respectively. The PSQI total scores of patients were positively related with both SF-MPQ and FRI scores (P< 0.001). Also, there were negative relationships between the physical component summary score of the SF-36 and all subscale scores of the PSQI, without sleep duration of PSQI (P< 0.001). CONCLUSION: The sleep quality of patients with CLBP was worse compared to HCs, and there were positive relations between the sleep quality with pain and functional status. Also, the poor sleep quality had negative effect on the physical component of quality of life.
Keywords: Chronic low back pain, functional status, health-related quality of life, sleep quality
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The Bournemouth Questionnaire (BQ) was used to report the short to mid-term outcome of a prospective cohort of patients who had sustained Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD), and establish whether outcome could be predicted on initial assessment. METHODS: One hundred patients with WAD grades I-III on the Quebec Task Force Classification were referred for physiotherapy (neck posture advice, initially practised under the direct supervision of a therapist). BQ scores were recorded on the first visit, at six weeks, then at final follow-up. RESULTS: Seventy-six percent of patients were available at final follow-up, 58% women.…The mean age was 43.2 years old and follow-up time 38 months (28-48). Symptoms plateaued after six weeks in the majority and improved gradually thereafter. When the individual BQ components on initial presentation were reassessed, patients who score disproportionately highly in BQ Question 5 (Depression) had a worse outcome. To quantify this, the ratio of BQ Questions 5 (Depression)/1 (Pain) was calculated. BQ5/1 ratio greater than 1 on initial presentation had an odds ratio of 2 for poor outcome (p= 0.02). CONCLUSION: The BQ can therefore be used to identify patients with a disproportionately high depression score (BQ5) who are highly likely to clinically deteriorate in the medium term.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in patients with chronic low back pain and radicular leg pain due to lumbar disc herniation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 80 patients (32 female and 48 male; mean age: 45.8 years [range: 25-65 years]) that received fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural steroid injections for chronic radicular low back pain due to lumbar disc herniation. All of the patients had diagnostic MRI findings and did not respond to conservative treatment. All injections were performed by…the same physician at the interventional pain unit of a tertiary hospital. The effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injections was assessed via a standardized telephone questionnaire administered 2 years after the first injection. RESULTS: Mean duration of radicular low back pain was 24.50 ± 18.25 months. Most of the epidural injections were administered at the L5 and S1 levels. The most effective post-injection period was the first 5.11 ± 3.07 months. Mean duration of injection effect was 12.46 ± 7.24 months. The response rate to the epidural steroid injections was 72%. CONCLUSIONS: There was negative correlation between the duration of treatment effect and the duration of pre-treatment symptoms. Additionally, clinical improvement of radicular low back pain increased significantly as the duration of pre-treatment symptoms decreased. Based on the present findings, we think that transforaminal epidural steroid injections can be used as an alternative treatment for managing chronic radicular low back pain.
Keywords: Low back pain, epidural steroids, transforaminal, radiculopathy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Scoliosis, the most prevalent orthopaedic condition affecting children and adolescents, may have lasting physical, psychological and social consequences. With limited evidence-base, scoliosis-specific exercise therapies are an option. OBJECTIVE: An overview of the subject and description of a long-term follow-up study including adults who in adolescence were treated with a scoliosis-specific exercise programme investigating the association of the exercise regime with present physical activity, physical functioning and subjective wellbeing. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first long-term outcome study on scoliosis-specific exercises, in opposition to a number of studies in adults who were braced…or treated surgically in adolescence. METHODS: Observational, registry-based case-control study. Adult subjects who in adolescence were treated with an exercise programme or were under observation are invited. Spine and trunk deformity, respiratory function, physical capacity and trunk muscles' function are measured. Health-related quality of life with generic and condition-specific instruments, general mental health, depression and anxiety symptoms, disability due to low back problems and physical activity are assessed. CONCLUSIONS: The report is believed to provide the readers with an overview of this controversial aspect of rehabilitation, and that the proposed protocol will assist researchers designing their studies.
Keywords: Scoliosis, exercises, long-term outcomes, quality of life, functioning, mental health
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Enthesitis is a prominent feature of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) and persisting enthesitis may be a presenting symptom either alone or in combination with peripheral synovitis and/or inflammatory back pain. OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of SpA patients with persistent enthesitis as first manifestation. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. All SpA patients visiting the rheumatology and rehabilitation clinic, of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, between May 2007 and December 2008, were studied and those with chronic enthesitis as presenting symptom were included. Patients were classified with European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) classification criteria for SpA.…Demographic data were collected and routine lab tests performed, including HLA-B-27 testing. In all patients X-ray of spinal segments, sacroiliac joints and pelvis were performed. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS package program (version 12.0) and multivariate analysis was done. RESULTS: A total of 71 SpA patients could be included with initial presentation with chronic enthesitis. Of these patients 20 gave a history of disease onset before their 16th birthday and in 51 cases it was after their sixteenth. The mean age at presentation was respectively 12.5 ± 2.5 and 23.3 ± 6.4 years in juvenile and adult cases. Enthesitis was defined by history, clinical examination, and radio-imaging at accessible sites (X-ray pelvis/foot). Enthesitis presenting in the heel was the most common site (n= 51), but it was also seen in other locations in another 20 patients. The mean duration between presenting enthesitis and other features of SpA was 7.7 ± 3.2 and 8.5 ± 2.2 months in juvenile and adult cases respectively. All patients had raised ESR at disease onset and HLA-B27 was found to be positive in 58 cases. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was diagnosed in 49 cases and GradeI-II, Grade-III, and Grade-IV sacroiliitis was documented in 31, 5, and 13 patients respectively. CONCLUSION: Persistent enthesitis is one of the most common clinical presentation of SpA usually associated with high ESR, HLA-B27 positivity. Definition and classification of enthesitis is important in early diagnosis of this rheumatologic condition.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the activity of serum relaxin in female patients with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), locomotor system findings accompanying BJHS, and its relation to relaxin. METHODS: Into the study, female patients with BJHS and healthy women as the control group were included. The patients were diagnosed by using the Brighton 1998 criteria. Examination of the locomotor system for study groups were performed. Serum relaxin levels of both patient and control group were measured. RESULTS: There were 48 female patients with BJHS and 40 healthy women in the study. With…respect to the control group, the level of serum relaxin was higher in the patients (47.1 ± 20.3, 34.4 ± 22.1; p> 0.05). Again compared with the control group, arthralgia (p= 0.00), myalgia (p= 0.01), shoulder impingement syndrome (p= 0.05), pes planus (p= 0.01), and hyperkyphosis (p= 0.000) were higher in the patients. The level of relaxin median was significantly higher in the patients with pesplanus and hyperkyphosis than those who did not have them (p= 0.05, p= 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although serum relaxin level is not considered a causative factor for BJHS, the significant increases found in those patients with hyperkyphosis and pes planus suggest the hypothesis that relaxin has a limited and indefinite role in patients with BJHS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The occurrence of specific low back pain (LBP) due to workplace factors has not been well described among kitchen industry workers. This study would claim various risk factors that contributing LBP among kitchen workers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of LBP among the male commercial kitchen workers at catering industry. METHODS: The study population comprised of 114 male kitchen workers from nine hostel kitchens in a college campus in South India. The reported musculoskeletal symptoms during past 12 months were determined with the…help of standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) survey and by direct observations. RESULTS: The statistical analyses were carried out and the highest prevalence of LBP among subjects was reported as 65.8%. Among different work categories, the Chief cooks were reported highest prevalence of LBP (79.2%) than Assistant Cooks (71.4%) and Kitchen Aids (30.0%). Similarly the upper age group ( ≥ 41 years) workers had experienced the highest discomfort in low back as 92.9% than other age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that to undertake further studies on different preventive measures and ergonomics intervention to reduce the risks of LBP among kitchen workers.
Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorders, occupational disorders, male kitchen workers, low back pain
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Turkish version of the Upper Extremity Functional Index (UEFI) may help to assess shoulder function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SAIS). OBJECTIVE: To translate and cross-culturally adapted UEFI into Turkish and to assess its acceptability, reliability, validity in patients with SAIS. METHODS: This study conducted with 93 SAIS participants. UEFI, the short version of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale (Quick DASH), the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, and the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) were administered. Acceptability was assessed in terms of refusal rate, rates of missing responses,…and administration time. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intra class correlation coefficient (ICC), internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was assessed by floor and ceiling effects, skew of distributions and Pearson's correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the UEFI at Time 1 and Time 2 were as follows: α = 0.89 and α = 0.89. Average measure ICC was 0.80. The UEFI score demonstrated strong negative correlations with SPADI total score and Quick DASH score. There was not a significant correlation between the UEFI and mental health subscale score derived from SF-36. CONCLUSIONS: The Turkish version of UEFI is acceptable, valid, and reliable.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Frozen shoulder is a painful condition with gradual onset and loss of range of motion in the glenohumeral joint. To investigate the efficacy of ultrasound(US)-guided intra-articular (IA) ketorolac injection with capsular distension compared with steroid injection alone in patients with frozen shoulder by assessing pain relief, functional improvements, and range of motion at 1,3 and 6 months after the last injections. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Between January 2009 and December 2012, 121 patient were treated with US-guided IA steroid injection or IA ketorolac injection with capsular distension for frozen shoulder. Patients (n=…57) of US-guided IA steroid injection group were administered with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine (4 ml) plus triamcinolone (40 mg/ml; 1 ml) and patients (n= 64) of US-guided IA ketorolac injection with capsular distension group were administered by using 0.5% lidocaine (19 mL) plus ketorolac (30 mg/ml; 1 mL) for capsular distension. Outcome measurement was assessed by Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), Verbal Numeric pain Scale (VNS) and passive range of motion (ROM) before injections and at 1, 3 and 6 months after the last injections. We regarded the outcomes as a success if patients obtained significant pain relief (as measured by > 50% improvement in the VNS score and 20 point improvement in the SPASI) at 1, 3 and 6 months after the last injections. RESULTS: SPADI, VNS and passive ROM were improved 1, 3 and 6 months after the last injections in both groups. The statistical differences were not observed in SPADI, VNS between groups (p< 0.05). Successful treatment rate were not significantly different between the groups as well as in 1, 3 and 6 month outcomes. However, greater improvement was found in a matter of range of motion in patients receiving IA ketorolac injection with capsular distension than participants receiving US-guided IA steroid injection alone. Significant differences in improvement at 3 and 6 months were observed for shoulder passive abduction and external rotation (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: IA ketorolac injection with capsular distension was shown to be a treatment method as effective as the steroid injection alone in pain relief and functional improvement in patient with frozen shoulder and more improvement in passive abduction and external rotation than steroid injection alone at 3 and 6 months.