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Impact Factor 2020: 3.909
The Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease is an international multidisciplinary journal to facilitate progress in understanding the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, genetics, behavior, treatment and psychology of Alzheimer’s disease.
The journal publishes research reports, reviews, short communications, book reviews, and letters-to-the-editor. The journal is dedicated to providing an open forum for original research that will expedite our fundamental understanding of Alzheimer’s disease.
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Most people with dementia live in low- and middle-income countries and little is known about the potential for reducing these numbers by reducing key risk factors. Objective: To investigate the potential for dementia incidence reduction in Brazil, Mozambique, and Portugal (a culturally related, high-income country). Methods: We replicated previously published methods and based on the relative risks from previous studies, we estimated the population-attributable risk (PAR) of dementia in Mozambique, Brazil, and Portugal for seven modifiable risk factors associated with dementia (low educational attainment, physical inactivity, midlife hypertension, midlife obesity, depression, smoking, …and diabetes mellitus). The combined PAR was calculated and adjusted for associations between risk factors. The potential for risk factor reduction was assessed by examining the effect of relative reductions of 10% and 20% per decade for each of the risk factors on projections for dementia cases for each decade until 2050. Results: After adjusting for non-independence of risk factors, 24.4%, 32.3%, and 40.1% of dementia cases could be related to seven potentially modifiable risk factors in Mozambique, Brazil, and Portugal, respectively. Reducing the prevalence of each risk factor by 20% per decade could, by 2050, potentially reduce the prevalence of dementia in Mozambique, Brazil, and Portugal by 12.9%, 16.2%, and 19.5%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a substantial difference between the countries in the percentage of dementia cases that could be attributable to the seven potentially modifiable risk factors. The proportion of cases that could be prevented by 2050 if measures were taken to address these main risk factors was higher in Portugal than in Brazil and Mozambique. Each country or region should consider their unique risk factor profile when developing dementia risk reduction programs. Show more
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, low- and middle-income countries, prevention, risk reduction
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 70, no. s1, pp. S283-S291, 2019
Article Type: Review Article
Abstract: Vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a critical disease. Its prognosis includes not only onset of vascular dementia, but also death by cardiovascular disease. The vascular risk factors for vascular MCI are treatable, and appropriate treatment can prevent or delay the progression to dementia. Therefore, this group is an excellent candidate for secondary prevention. However, community-dwelling older adults with vascular MCI are often undetected and are not clinically identified until they develop frank dementia. Furthermore, older adults with undetected vascular MCI often have decreased ability to follow their medication regimens and this poor medication adherence worsens their vascular comorbidities. This …vicious cycle needs to be prevented through community-based interventions. There is evidence that treatment of hypertension or diabetes mellitus could lead to a reduced incidence of vascular MCI and dementia. In this review article, we first explain the background and etiology of vascular MCI. We then summarize phenotype of subcortical vascular dementia which is often unrecognized or “hidden” in the community. Then we introduce the Osaki-Tajiri and Kurihara Projects which have been conducted in Northern Japan, as an example of prevention projects aimed to identify early-stage vascular MCI in the community, reduce the risk factors and facilitate their treatment. Early identification of vascular MCI in the community could lead to a large reduction in the dementia burden worldwide. The outreach efforts presented here could be useful in developing secondary prevention strategies targeted to vascular MCI. Show more
Keywords: Community, kurihara project, mild cognitive impairment, tajiri project, vascular dementia, vascular MCI
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 70, no. s1, pp. S293-S302, 2019
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Background: Understanding the policy context and how policy is implemented at the local and clinical level is an important precursor to developing preventive strategies focusing on dementia risk reduction in primary healthcare settings. Objective: Using England as a case study, we review policies and strategies relevant to dementia prevention from the national to local level and how these are translated into primary healthcare services. Methods: We conducted a scoping review covering: 1) identification of national, regional, and local policies and strategies that include dementia prevention; 2) identification of national guidelines for implementing dementia prevention at the …clinical level; and 3) evaluation of the implementation of these at the clinical level. Results: Dementia prevention is addressed in national policy, and this filters through to regional and local levels. Focus on dementia prevention is limited and variable. Reference to modifiable risk factors is associated with other non-communicable diseases, placing less emphasis on factors more dementia specific. Evidence of implementation of dementia prevention policies at the clinical level is limited and inconsistent. Available evidence suggests messages about dementia prevention may best be delivered through primary healthcare services such as the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check. Conclusion: The limitations identified in this review could be addressed through development of a national policy focused specifically on dementia prevention. This could provide a platform for increasing knowledge and understanding among the general population and healthcare professionals. It would be important for such a policy to cover the full range of modifiable risk factors relevant to dementia. Show more
Keywords: Commissioner, government, modifiable risk, primary healthcare, policymaker
Citation: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 70, no. s1, pp. S303-S318, 2019
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