Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 7, issue 1
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: Objective: To assess gender specific differences in the decline of quadriceps strength under concentric and eccentric conditions. Design: Sixty volunteer subjects clear of musculoskeletal pathology were gender matched to three age groups (20-29, 40-49 and 60-69) with ten subjects in each gender-age group. Subjects performed concentric and eccentric knee extension at 60o . s-1 and 120o . s-1 on a Cybex 6000 isokinetics dynamometer. Strength was measured as peak torque (PT) as a…percentage of gross body weight. The rate os strength decline between genders at each contraction type and angular velocity was expressed by plotting regression lines and comparing slopes for significant difference. Results: Eleven of twelve inter- and intragender comparing of stregth decline failed to reveal significance with either angular velocity or contraction type (p = 0.09 - 0.97). However, unlike the males, females revealed a more significant rate of decline in eccentric strength than with concentric at 120 o .s -1 (p < 0.05). Intergender comparison of concentric strength at 120 o .s -1 was insignificant difference between genders, female displayed a more precipitous rate of decline in eccentric strength than concentric. Furthermore, but statistically insignificant at p = 0.09, males appear to lose concentric strength at a greater rate than do females at the faster angular velocity.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of goal setting on isokinetic parameters (peak torque and isokinetic work). An experimental group n=20 and a control group N=20 of healthy physical education students were studied. Both groups participated in a four week quadriceps strengthening program on an isokinetic dynamometer with the experimental group setting specific personal goals in each training session and receiving visual feedback of their performance. Results showed that the experimental group…improved both isokinetic parameters (peak torque, work) significantly more than the control p<0.05 group. The findings indicate that personal goal settings when used with visual feedback might be an important determinant for improvement of isokinetic performance.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine if a deficit existed in the truncated range average torque (TRAT) values of the knee extensor muscles of the operated limb in subjects with patellar tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions when compared with the non-operated limb at 12 and 18 weeks following surgery. Subjects were assessed using the Kin-Com (500 H) dynamometer utilising a proximal pad to reduce shear force through the tibio-femoral joint. Three isokinetic velocities…(60, 120 and 180 deg/sec) for concentric and one velocity (60 deg/sec) for eccentric muscle actions were tested. Results of the TRAT for knee extensors showed average concentric deficits of 25.4% at 12 weeks and 17.6% compared to the non-operated limb on both testing occasions. There was a significant improvement of TRAT scores of the operated limb from 12 to 18 weeks for all testing velocities except 120 deg/sec. The results of this study not only provide quantitative values of knee extensor strength deficits at 12 and 18 weeks post-surgery but also indicate a significant improvement in knee extensor strength of the operated limb over the same time period. This confirms both the large strength deficits and improvements in strength which clinicians have long suspected exist at this early stage following reconstructive surgery.
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develope and determine the efficacy of a middle digit isokinetic eccentric strength dynamometer (MMD) in two groups of subjects. Methodes: The first group was composed of individuals without physician diagnosed lateral epicondylitis (13 males and 14 females), and the second group was composed of individuals who had physician diagnosed lateral epicondylitis (13 males and 14 females. A middle digital extension isokinetic dynamometer measured eccentric isokinetic torque, work, power,…and angle at peak torque of the third finger. Results: Test-retest correlation values ranged from 0.83 to 0.45. ANOVA indicated a significant difference in work, power and angle at peak torque were indicated between the two subject groups. Conclusion: The middle digital extension isokinetic dynamometer appears to provide an acceptable means of evaluating effects of lateral epicondylitis therapy.
Keywords: lateral epicondylitis, finger isokinetic movement, finger torque, finger power
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the velocity measures of the Kinetic Communicator 500H isokinetic dynamometer (Chattecx Corp., Inc., Hixson, TN) through the use of the Peak 5 motion measurement system (PPTI, Englewood, CO 90112). Ten healthy college-aged females were filmed with a 200 Hz camera performing concentric knee extension and flexion with their right knee at seven pre-set velocities ranging from 60 to 240 deg/s. The video was automatically digitized…and analyzed utilizing the Peak 5 motion measurement system and the angular velocity measures were averaged together in 10 degree increments and compared to the averaged measures from the software of the Kin-Com 500H dynamometer. Because of the small variance in Kin-Com data, correlational analyses could not be performed. Paired t-tests revealed significantly different velocity measures at 90 deg/s, 120 deg/s, 150 deg/s, 180 deg/s, and 210 deg/s at certain points in the range of motion. These differences ranged from 2--6 percent. When compared to the Peak 5 system, the Kin-Com appears to provide an accurate assessment of velocity under clinical conditions.
Abstract: This investigation was conducted to examine the influence of head and neck (H--N) position in the transverse plane on the static muscle strength of elbow flexion and extension and hand grip. Subjects were 36 apparently healthy young females (23-36 years). Strength was measured instrumentally. The strength of each action was measured twice on both sides on each of two days about one week apart. Separate analysis of variance procedures applied to each action of each side…(eg left hand grip) demonstrated no significant effect of H--N position, trial, or day. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) showed intertrial and interday reliability to be high (ICCs = 0.96 - 0.99. This study provides no evidence that H-N position needs to be considered when testing the upper extremity strength of neurologically intact women. The study confirms the reliability of both hand-held and hand grip dynamometry.