Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 5, issue 3-4
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: A concentric isokinetic torque profile for the knee extensors and flexors of 16 NAIA female volleyball athletes was compiled. Subjects were tested at 90 and 1800/s. The purpose of this investigation was to combine these data with previous reports to establish an isokinetic musculoskeletal data base for female volleyball athletes of varying age and skill level. A series of tables are presented comparing the results of differing populations of female volleyball athletes. A review of subject demographics revealed similarities in age, height, and mass over varying skill levels. Inconsistencies in isokinetic test velocity and device complicated exact direct peak torque…comparisons. General comparisons found striking similarities between isokinetic torque values assessed at similar test velocities. An appeal is made for consistent concentric knee test velocities of 60, 180, and 300°/s. Secondarily, the nature of volleyball knee injuries warrants future establishment of eccentric isokinetic testing of these muscle groups.
Abstract: The purposes of the study were: (1) to determine the test-retest reliability of testing passive resistive torque (PRT) of the ankle plantar flexors in a weight-bearing position; and (2) to determine the concurrent validity of standing and supine test positions. Separate groups of older (60–75 years) and younger (20–35 years) women were tested either on two occasions for the standing position, or on one occasion in both the standing and supine positions. For all testing, the velocity on a KIN-COM was set at 6 deg/s, and the ankle was moved from 10° plantar flexion (PF) to 10° dorsiflexion (DF) over…six continuous cycles. PRT at 10° DF determined in standing had excellent reliability (ICCs > 0.85). PRT values in the standing and the supine positions were highly related (r = 0.91, P < 0.01). Therefore, PRT can be tested in a standing position on a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer.
Keywords: Passive resistive torque, Ankle plantar flexors, Young and aged female
Abstract: We prospectively performed isokinetic shoulder testing in 31 patients with rotator tendinosis (Impingement, stage II), to evaluate which movement patterns these patients are able to fulfill both before and after treatment. The movement patterns used were external/internal rotation and flexion/extension. The angular velocities were 60°/s and 180°/s and the patients were tested pre-treatment and after 6 and 24 months. Twenty-five of the patients (81%) managed all three external/internal rotation tests. In flexion/extension, however, only eight patients (26%) fulfilled all tests because of pain. Pre-treatment there was an average significant reduction of 25% (P < 0.001) in external rotation, while internal…rotation only had a slight reduction of 10%. At 24 months both movement patterns had regained normal strength. Most patients fulfilled the external/internal rotation tests and the performance was weakly correlated to pain compared to the flexion/extension pattern. This suggests that external/internal rotation is the preferrable movement pattern for evaluation of muscle strength deficits per se in patients with rotator tendinosis.
Abstract: A review is given of the possible sources of error to be found when using isokinetic measurement systems. These errors are associated with the subject on whom the measurements are being taken, the person conducting the measurement i.e. the therapist, and the machine itself. Examples of each are given as drawn from the authors own work.
Abstract: Isokinetic movements are performed with maximum muscular effort resulting in maximal knee joint loading throughout the range of movement. The calculation of joint forces and therefore estimation of knee loading requires the accurate measurement of the moment exerted on the dynamometer and the gravitational moment acting on the system. The purpose of this study therefore was the examination of different methods for the measurement of the gravitational moment and the calculation of muscular and tibiofemoral forces during eccentric isokinetic knee exercises at angular velocities ranging from 0.52 to 2.62 rad s−1 , using a biomechanical model of the knee joint.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the torque produced using two commonly employed approaches to isokinetic strength testing, the continuous and discrete testing approaches, using the same dynamometer. The continuous testing approach consisted of four repetitions of maximal reciprocal concentric (Con) and eccentric (Ecc) muscle actions, with a 4-min pause after each set of repetitions to allow recovery. The discrete testing approach consisted of four maximal Con and Ecc muscle actions, each action separated by a 30-s pause. A 2-min pause followed each velocity. Both approaches were performed at velocities of 60, 120 and 180° s−1 . Each…testing approach therefore encompassed the same number of maximal repetitions and the same pause time, giving equal total work and total recovery times. Full range average torque (FRAT), truncated range average torque (TRAT) and peak torque (PT) were derived from all generated torque curves. The best data (highest torque values) were utilised in subsequent analyses. Each dependent variable (FRAT, TRAT and PT) was separately analysed using a three-way ANOVA with repeated measures on all three factors: testing approach (continuous and discrete), velocity (60, 120 and 180° s−1 and muscle action (Con and Ecc). A significant interaction between the independent variables testing approach and muscle action existed for all measures of strength. Contrasts revealed no difference between the Con muscle actions of the continuous and discrete testing approaches, however, the torques produced in Ecc muscle actions with the discrete testing approach were significantly greater than those produced in the continuous testing approach. Ecc torques and any derived measures incorporating Ecc torques are therefore not comparable between the testing approaches.
Keywords: Continuous and discrete testing, Concentric torque, Knee extensors
Abstract: Isokinetic dynamometry (ISD) is recognized by most clinicians involved with muscle performance assessment to be the standard tool for this purpose. This technology is also sufficiently widespread to render some of its derived findings interpretable by experienced users, much the same as it applies to other clinical measurements. Although, the clinical value of ISD took some years to establish, the medicolegal field was fast in grasping its enormous potential in quantifying indemnifiable damages to the muscular system; indeed the legal application of ISD was one of the first to emerge soon after this technology was introduced, some 30 years ago.…This review deals with some of the main medicolegal aspects of ISD theoretical/substantial and practical/procedural. Within this context, it also concerns the critical problem of admissibility by indicating a possible scientifically-based approach to proving whether the alleged weakness is genuine or not.
Abstract: The influence of cutaneous and joint receptors on the quadriceps femoris torque-velocity relationship was assessed with the Kin-Com (Chattecx, Inc., Hixson, TN) isokinetic dynamometer. Twenty-four females (age = 21 ± 1.4 years, ht = 163 ± 6.0 cm, wt = 60 ± 7.6 kg) were divided into two groups and tested with the force pad placed either proximally or distally on the leg. Three concentric and eccentric contractions were performed at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200° s−1 on 2 separate days with an anesthetic applied to the skin under the force pad on 1 of…the 2 days. An ANOYA was performed on peak torque with trend analyses performed on velocity factors. The results indicate the cutaneous and knee joint receptors do not affect the quadriceps femoris concentric or eccentric torque-velocity relationships, F(7, 154) = 1.6. Furthermore, the results revealed significant linear, F(1, 154) = 161.14, and quadratic trends, F(1, 154) = 25.85, for concentric and eccentric peak torque, respectively. Thus, the concentric torque-velocity relationship is best described by a linear relationship rather than the classic curvilinear relationship. Conversely, the eccentric relationship is best described by the classic curvilinear relationship. These results suggest that adequate assessment of muscular torque production requires testing at multiple velocities.
Abstract: This study examined the effect of cold treatment on the force-velocity relationship of the quadriceps muscle of 16 athletes. Each subject performed three maximal concentric and eccentric quadriceps contractions on the Kin-Com at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200° s−1 . On one of two testing sessions, subjects received a 20 min ice application prior to testing, and for the remaining session, no ice was applied. The results revealed no significant change in the torque-velocity relationship. A trend analysis revealed linear relationships for the concentric ice [F (1,15) = 82.23] and no ice [F (1,15) = 44.86]…conditions as well as for the eccentric ice [F (1,15) = 38.58] and no ice [F (1,15) = 26.40] conditions. There were no significant differences between the concentric ice and no ice means at any velocity, but peak torque at 200° s−1 was significantly different from peak torque at 25–100° s−1 . For eccentric contractions there was a difference between ice and no ice means, with an increase of 20% and 16% for the ice condition at 175 and 200° s−1 , respectively. For the eccentric ice conditions across velocities, the PT at 200° s−1 was significantly different from the PT at 125–200° s−1 . This suggests that the application of ice will not decrease strength but may in fact result in an increase in eccentric strength.