Isokinetics and Exercise Science - Volume 28, issue 3
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Isokinetics and Exercise Science (IES) is an international journal devoted to the study of theoretical and applied aspects of human muscle performance. Since isokinetic dynamometry constitutes the major tool in this area, the journal takes a particular interest in exploring the considerable potential of this technology.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science publishes studies associated with the methodology of muscle performance especially with respect to the issues of reproducibility and validity of testing, description of normal and pathological mechanical parameters which are derivable from muscle testing, applications in basic research topics such as motor learning paradigms and electromyography. The journal also publishes studies on applications in clinical settings and technical aspects of the various measurement systems employed in human muscle performance research.
Isokinetics and Exercise Science welcomes submissions in the form of research papers, reviews, case studies and technical reports from professionals in the fields of sports medicine, orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation and exercise physiology.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High-speed resistive exercise increasingly serves as a modality to improve health and performance. In regards to high-speed resistive exercise, little research exists which elucidates factors that may serve as significant correlates, and therefore predict health and performance benefits. Furthermore what research exists on this topic usually examined male athletes. OBJECTIVE: To assess anthropometry’s role as a correlate to high-speed resistive exercise performance. METHODS: Before the workouts, subjects were measured for six anthropometric variables. At each two-set workout the average and peak force, as well as the total volume of work done, were recorded and…used for analysis. To identify correlates to high-speed exercise performance, a series of multivariate analyses were done, in which an exercise performance variable served as a criterion and the six anthropometric measurements were predictor variables. RESULTS: Only one of our multivariate analyses achieved significance. With peak force from phasic workout as the criterion, a significant amount of variance correlated with anthropometry. Univariate analyses revealed height was the strongest correlate to phasic peak force variance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are unlike those from studies done with men. Differences may be due, but not limited, to 1): the load used, 2): the timing and coordination of high-speed repetitions, and 3): height’s role in exercise performance.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Both isokinetic testing and functional tests are commonly used during the rehabilitation programme of individuals. Limited information exists in the literature, regarding the correlation between these two testing methods. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship among quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic performance values and those derived from three functional assessment tests in a group of healthy participants. METHODS: Twenty-five men, were assessed via 1) three functional tests: single hop for distance (SHD), triple hop for distance (THD) and single timed hop (STH) and 2) isokinetic concentric bilateral knee flexion and extension strength values [Mean…Peak Moment (MPM), Total Work (TW) and Average Power (AP)] at 60, 180 and 300 ∘ /s. RESULTS: Fair correlations were calculated between the bodyweight normalized scores of the functional tests and those of the normalized isokinetic variables. None of the three angular velocities and none of the three functional tests appeared to be more indicative to functional performance than the others. CONCLUSION: There is the need for dynamometry in conjunction with functional tests for a more comprehensive evaluation of knee extension and also flexion performance.
Keywords: Hop tests, isokinetics, muscular performance, functional testing
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is a common sports injury. The initial injury involves trauma, but repeated inversion injuries occur in patients with eversion strength weakness and lower dynamic balance ability. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure strength and dynamic balance ability of ankle sprain patients and to analyze characteristics which part is more meaningful. METHODS: Patients were 91 men and 116 women with chronic ankle instability (CAI) All patients were tested for dynamic balance (Y-balance test, YBT) and isokinetic strength (evertors, at 30 ∘ /s). RESULTS: Forty…men (44.0%) and 44 women (37.9%) showed lower relative eversion strength on the injured side. Balance was compromised in 66 men (72%) and 74 women (81%). Sixteen men (17.6%) and 44 women (37.9%) were weak in both YBT and muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: CAI patients tended to have a greater loss of dynamic balance ability than weakness of ankle eversion strength. Therefore, balance training should be emphasized in ankle re-injury prevention program.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A small, portable, inexpensive FP is a helpful test instrument in many strength and conditioning settings. OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and validity of a portable FP. METHODS: The FP was assessed statically for linearity and regionality using known weights and known weight placements across nine regions. Dynamic assessment was conducted by placing the FP on a laboratory-grade one-dimensional FP and performing static jumps, countermovement, and drop jumps with synchronized data acquisition. Frequency response of the FP was assessed by striking the top surface with a hammer. RESULTS: Excellent…static linearity (r > 0.99), trivial differences in regional forces, excellent correlation between FPs in the static, countermovement, and anchored FP for the drop jump (all r > 0.98) were observed. Frequency response from an impact was poor when the FP was not anchored. However, once anchored the FP showed a dominant frequency of more than 10 times the typical jump frequencies and excellent synchrony with the laboratory FP (r > 0.98). CONCLUSION: The FP showed good to excellent characteristics in the static and countermovement jumps and the drop jumps when anchored. The primary limitation of the FP is its small size and light weight.
Keywords: Vertical jump, measurement, comparison, frequency response
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness, though not the primary impairment accompanying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been documented in patients with the disease. OBJECTIVE: Describe isokinetic testing procedures and clinimetric findings associated with the isokinetic testing of older individuals with COPD. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified by an electronic PubMed search using the search string “isokinet* AND (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease OR COPD)” and by a hand search. RESULTS: Thirty-four potentially relevant articles were identified. Seven were excluded, leaving 27 for review. The articles provide considerable support for the validity of…isokinetic strength testing of older patients with COPD. Little data are available that provides specific information on the reliability and responsiveness of the measures. CONCLUSIONS: Research provides considerable evidence for the validity, limited evidence for the reliability, and no statistical evidence for the responsiveness of isokinetic testing of muscle strength among older adults with COPD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is common among older adults and associated with impaired knee strength. OBJECTIVE: Describe isokinetic testing procedures and clinimetric findings associated with the testing of knee strength in the presence of knee OA. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified by an electronic search of PubMed using the search string “isokinet * AND knee osteoarthritis.” RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-nine relevant articles were found. The articles support the validity and reliability of isokinetic strength testing for patients with knee OA. The responsiveness to various therapeutic interventions…has been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Isokinetic dynamometry is a valid and reliable measure of muscle strength in knee OA.
Abstract: BACKGROUND : Sarcopenia is a component of frailty, which is a common geriatric syndrome for which the quantification of muscle strength is important. OBJECTIVE: Describe studies that have used isokinetic testing for detecting sarcopenia and determine whether there is an isokinetic strength level that can best detect sarcopenia. METHODS : A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Our literature search involved the following key words: (isokinet*) AND ((sarcopenia) OR (frailty) OR (muscle weakness). Sarcopenia reference values for isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 60 ∘…/s were determined using summary data from relevant articles. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies that were relevant and lacked major methodological flaws were included. Most measured peak torque of the knee extensors and/or flexors. The measurements were found to be valid and responsive. The net moment weighted averages for knee extension torques were 83 ± 3 Nm for males and 60 ± 7 Nm for females in sarcopenia population. For knee flexion, the weighted averages for knee extension torque were 47 ± 6 Nm for males and 36 ± 5 Nm for females in sarcopenia population. All weighted averages were significantly lower than the reference values for the healthy population aged 60–70 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The isokinetic strength values reported herein can be used to identify sarcopenia in older men and women.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness is a common impairment accompanying stroke. OBJECTIVE: Describe isokinetic testing procedures and clinimetric findings associated with the testing of older individuals with weakness following stroke. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified by an electronic PubMed search using the search string “isokinet * AND stroke.” RESULTS: Seventy-six relevant articles were found. The articles largely support the validity and reliability of isokinetic strength testing of older patients with stroke. Little data are available that provides specific information on the responsiveness for such measures. CONCLUSIONS:…Isokinetic dynamometry is a valid and reliable measure of muscle strength after stroke. However, it is not particularly practical and information is lacking regarding its responsiveness.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Shoulder pathology is common, particularly in older adults. This pathology often involves the muscles of the shoulder, particularly those of the rotator cuff. Although there are many procedures for measuring muscle weakness and imbalance of the shoulder rotator muscles, isokinetic dynamometry is probably considered the gold standard. OBJECTIVE : To describe the use and findings of isokinetic testing of the shoulder rotator muscles in patients with shoulder disorders. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using the string “isokinet* AND rotator cuff.” Thereafter, a secondary hand search was conducted. Original articles that reported isokinetic…measures of the shoulder rotators in older patients with orthopedic shoulder disorders were identified, summarized, and critically appraised. RESULTS: Thirty-four relevant articles were found. The articles largely support the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of isokinetic strength measures of shoulder rotation strength in patients with shoulder pathology. CONCLUSIONS: The literature provides support for the isokinetic measurement of rotator muscle performance in patients with shoulder pathology. However, it is not always practical in the clinical setting.