International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 3, issue 3
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 55.00
Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: Both individual and ecological influences are implicated as factors linked to youth violence. In this paper, we conduct analyses on several databases of 6th -12th grade students in the United States, to explore the linkage of positive relationships, opportunities, skills, and values, called Developmental Assets, to prevention of youth aggressive and violent behaviors. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data show that high levels of 40 developmental assets are associated with lower levels of aggression and violence. Several individual assets also are especially meaningful contributors to those aggression and violence outcomes, suggesting a positive role both for the overall accumulation of…positive developmental experiences and for specific kinds of developmental nutrients. The data suggest that developmental assets appear to operate to reduce aggression and violence by providing young people with the relationships, opportunities, and skills needed for social integration.
Abstract: This article introduces the clover model, a research-based developmental model of resilience and psychopathology related to the prevention of aggressive behavior and the promotion of resiliency in adolescents. It describes how social cognitions and emotions function differently at different periods of adolescent development and influence problem behavior, such as aggression and antisocial conduct, as well as resiliency. A prototypical prevention program based on the model is discussed. Finally, we describe an organized after-school activity, also based on the model, as a concrete example of this developmentally differentiated intervention approach.
Abstract: Early developmental prevention involves interventions designed to prevent the development of criminal potential in individuals, especially those that target risk and protective factors, in the early years of the life course. Developmental prevention is considered one of the major strategies in preventing delinquency and later offending. There is growing research support for this strategy. This article reviews the most important scientific evidence on the effectiveness of early developmental prevention programs at the individual and family levels. It uses the highest quality research studies (i.e., experiments and quasi-experiments) and review methods (i.e., systematic and meta-analytic). Our reviews show that there are…a number of effective early prevention programs designed to tackle the most important risk factors for offending, from preschool intellectual enrichment to home visiting and parent management training. The article also identifies future directions for policy and research to aid in the development and implementation of early prevention programs.
Abstract: Much research is now available on the effectiveness of prevention measures for antisocial behavior problems and crime in childhood and adolescence. This article systematically reviews the results of 26 reviews and meta-analyses summarizing over a thousand controlled studies on social skills training, parent training, early interventions, and violence prevention programs. Results showed that programs generally had low to moderate mean effect sizes. Social skills training for children, parent training programs, and early interventions were the most promising prevention strategy, whereas school-based anti-bullying or violence prevention programs had lower effect sizes. Prevention measures addressing high-risk groups produced higher effect sizes than…universal strategies. Several reviews also reported better outcomes for well-implemented programs. Finally, although most interventions had significant positive effects on development, there were also several limitations: More research is needed on long-term effects, program implementation, prevention alternatives, and the dissemination of successful prevention programs within community care systems.
Keywords: antisocial behavior, juvenile delinquency, prevention, meta-analysis, children and adolescents, evaluation
Abstract: Rigorously evaluated prenatal and infancy home visitation programs for families at risk have proven to effectively prevent the development of early onset and later conduct problems. The German pilot project “Pro Kind” is an adaptation of the US evidence-based Nurse-Family Partnership program. It has been evaluated in a longitudinal randomized control group design since 2006. In this paper, preliminary results for prenatal health behavior, pregnancy, birth as well as child neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months of age are presented. So far, positive treatment effects are only found for the cognitive outcomes at the age of 12 months.
Keywords: prevention, home visitation, pregnancy, infancy, Pro Kind
Abstract: The aim of this randomized controlled study is to explore the long-term efficacy of the widely used Triple P parent group training as a universal prevention intervention. 280 families with children between 3 and 6 years participated (N=l86 Triple P, N=94 control group). A multi-method assessment was conducted pre, post and one to four years after the initial assessment. To assess DSM-IV oppositional defiant disorder parents rated symptom criteria using the German CD rating scale FBB-SSV. In the long term there were small positive effect sizes for externalizing behavior. A decrease of 5.2% in prevalence rates in the Triple P…group was observed. Implications are discussed, particularly for the dissemination of effective universal prevention programs.
Keywords: prevention, parenting program, externalizing problem behavior, childhood
Abstract: The effectiveness of a peer-mediation-program for third grade students (elementary school) was evaluated through a longitudinal study. The sample consisted of 262 students, 141 boys and 121 girls, drawn from thirty classrooms in fifteen elementary schools. There was one intervention and one control-class in each school. The evaluation was carried out through questionnaires which were filled out by all students and teachers before and after the intervention as well as one year later. The questionnaires comprise four scales to assess direct and indirect aggressive behavior, victimisation, and prosocial behavior. Results suggest that the impact of the intervention is gender-related. According…to teachers' evaluations there was an improvement of prosocial behavior of boys in the intervention classes. In addition, they showed a decrease in direct and indirect aggression and victimisation. In contrast, teachers reported a deterioration of prosocial behavior as well as an increase in direct and indirect aggression among the girls.
Abstract: The fairplayer.manual is a manualized, school-based intervention program to prevent bullying and relational aggression. We present first results from an evaluation study conducted in Berlin (Germany) with 119 students (age 14-17) from a comprehensive school using a controlled pre-/post-/follow-up design. Utilizing standardized questionnaires we found a significant and practically relevant decrease in bullying behavior and in peer and teacher reported relational aggression in the intervention group after the fairplayer.manual was implemented.