International Journal of Developmental Science - Volume 10, issue 1-2
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Individual human development is influenced by a multitude of systems, ranging from cultural processes, genetic and physiological incidents up to social interactions. How do these systems cooperate and interact during the course of human development? One of the main goals of Developmental Science is finding an answer to this question.
Since it exceeds the means of researchers from individual scientific disciplines to investigate the simultaneous biopsychosocial changes of systems and how they jointly contribute to the social and adaptive functions of human individuals, a new scientific approach is necessary that links the various traditional scientific disciplines under a biopsychosocial approach to describe individual human development: Developmental Science.
Developmental Science combines concepts and insights from scientific disciplines which hitherto used to independently tackle the research of human and non-human development. As an interdisciplinary approach it examines individuals across the lifespan with the objective of comprehending the development of individuals with different cultural and ethnic as well as biological background, different economic and cognitive potentials and under diverse living conditions. To facilitate the understanding of developmental processes it is also necessary to overcome the disadvantageous separation of “normal” from “abnormal” human development. Thus, the interdisciplinary field of Developmental Science comprises a holistic approach to understanding how different systems interact and influence development throughout life from genetic and physiological processes to social interactions and cultural processes.
International Journal of Developmental Science is especially devoted to research from the fields of Psychology, Genetics, Neuroscience and Biology and provides an interdisciplinary and international forum for basic research and professional application in the field of Developmental Science. The reader will find original empirical or theoretical contributions, methodological and review papers, giving a systematic overview or evaluation of research and theories of Developmental Science and dealing with typical human development and developmental psychopathology during infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. All manuscripts pass through a multilevel peer-review process.
In 2007-2010 (Vol. 1-4) this journal was named
European Journal of Developmental Science. In 2011 its name was changed to
International Journal of Developmental Science.
Abstract: There are four sources of large-scale self-report survey data on victim rates, cross-nationally. These are EU Kids Online, Global School Health Survey, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, and Health Behaviour of School-aged Children. There are some differences in methodology between these surveys, but all use pupil self-report data. They have all been used to look at cross-national differences, in relation to other country characteristics and correlates. Here, we examine measures of internal validity (consistency within a survey) and external validity (agreement across surveys) on these data sets. We first report on internal validity issues, using available means within…each survey (correlations across strict or lenient frequency criteria; across types of bullying; across ages; across genders). Generally, these correlations are high. We secondly report on external validity, in the sense of how much agreement there is between the four surveys, where they overlap in countries. Here, we find agreement to be from moderate to zero. These low external validity rates raise concerns about using these cross-national data sets to make judgements about which countries are higher or lower in victim rates. A range of possible explanations for the findings are discussed.
Abstract: Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from three countries were used as an example case to compare the single- and multiple-item approaches from a substantial and a statistical point of view. The sample comprised 671 Austrian (46.3% girls), 691 Cypriot (45.9% girls), and 604 Romanian (46.7% girls) 12 year old students. Data were collected via self-assessments with single and multiple-items. Because scalar measurement invariance could be…established for the multiple-item measurement approaches, latent means between the three countries were compared. Substantial results of the single- and multiple-item approach did not differ for traditional bullying and traditional victimization, but differed for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. As a consequence, we suggest using carefully validated multiple-item scales for cross-national comparisons.
Abstract: To examine cross-cultural differences in behavior upon witnessing peer victimization and the reasons behind the behavior, this study evaluated the responses of early adolescents from both the United States and Taiwan. Two questions were addressed: (1) Do adolescents in Taiwan and in the United States differ in their willingness to help peer victims, and/or in the endorsement of specific help and non-help behaviors when assessed with a vignette? And (2) do adolescents in Taiwan respond and reason about their responses in the same way as do U.S. early adolescents when they witness real-life victimization? Four-hundred seventy U.S. 6th graders attending…three public middle schools within the Midwest United States and 731 Taiwanese 7th graders from one middle school in southern Taiwan completed a survey that contained both open-ended questions asking about real-life reports of witnessing peer victimization and a vignette assessing responses to a hypothetical victimization event. Similarities and differences were found in witness responses from adolescents in the two cultural groups. Taiwanese adolescents were more likely to offer comfort to the victim and U.S. adolescents more likely to tell the bully to stop. Cultural values of interdependence versus independence were reflected in the reasons behind witness responses. Suggestions regarding how anti-victimization intervention and prevention programs should be tailored when they are introduced across the two cultural contexts are discussed.
Keywords: Adolescents, cross-cultural, peer victimization, bystander, help behaviors
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the role of publicity (private versus public) and medium (face-to-face versus cyber) in adolescents’ coping strategies for hypothetical victimization, while also considering culture. Participants were adolescents from China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States. The study also controlled for adolescents’ gender, individualism, and collectivism. Adolescents completed questionnaires on the hypothetical coping strategies that they would use for four scenarios, including public face-to-face victimization, public cyber victimization, private face-to-face victimization, and private cyber victimization. Overall, the findings revealed that adolescents relied more on avoidance, social support, retaliation, helplessness, and…ignoring for public and face-to-face forms of victimization than for private and cyber forms of victimization. Cross-cultural differences in coping strategies are discussed.
Abstract: One way to avert negative influences on well-being when confronted with blocked goals is the flexible adjustment of one’s goals to the given situation. This study examines developmental differences in flexible goal adjustment (FGA) regarding age and gender in a sample of N = 815 participants (10 to 20 years; M = 13.63, SD = 2.60, 48.5% male). Moreover, it is investigated if FGA consists of specific cognitive coping and emotion regulation strategies and if some are more indicative than others at different developmental stages. Results showed no age differences in FGA,…but in the strategies positive reappraisal, coping humor, acceptance, and optimistic thinking. These strategies were also most indicative for FGA. Optimistic thinking was more indicative in younger adolescents, while reappraisal and coping humor were more indicative in older adolescents. Regarding gender differences, boys had higher scores in FGA and reappraisal than girls. Results highlight the necessity to consider the processes constituting FGA from a developmental perspective.
Abstract: We investigated the role of children’s conceptual understanding and ballgame experience when judging whether a football player is in an offside position, or not. In the offside position, a player takes advantage of being behind the defence line of the opposing team and just waits for the ball to arrive in order to score a goal. We explained the offside rule to 7- and 9-year-old children with a Subbuteo setup. They produced drawings of an offside position until it was correct (drawing to criterion). Thereafter, children judged whether a designated player was in an offside position in a computerized task.…Like adults, also children found it easier to judge when a player was in a wrong rather than a right place. Only when including frequency of ballgame practice in the analysis it was revealed that boys were better independently of age as they judged the offside position more systematically.
Keywords: Wrong place, offside position, game rules, spatial concepts, ball game playing experience