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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The deformability of sphered erythrocytes produced in vitro by fragmentation loss of membrane in a glass micropipette or by heating at 48°C has been compared to spheres in metabolically depleted blood and in spheres from blood bank blood by measuring the pressure for passage through a 2.8-μ micropipette. Progressive membrane loss increased deforming pressure from 9.0 ± 0.4 mm H2 O for control cell to 190 ± 21 for cell fragmented in two steps by the micropipette and 120 ± 20 for heat-fragmented cells as compared to 405 ± 39 for metabolically depleted cells and 203 ± 9…for cells stored 8 weeks in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution at 4°C. The volume of the micropipette fragmented cells, heat-induced spheres and blood bank cells were less than control erythrocytes (78 μ 3 , 82 μ 3 and 79 μ 3 vs 87 μ 3 ) and volume of the metabolically depleted cells did not differ from control. The loss of deformability in the fragmentation induced spheres appears to be related to sphericity; in blood bank spheres it is thought to relate to membrane loss and abnormal intracellular ATP/Ca2+ , and in the metabolically depleted cells which have not lost membrane area, rigidity is thought to be due to Ca2+ -induced contraction of membrane proteins and gel transition of proteins at the inner membrane surface as ATP is depleted. Chlorpromazine, known to increase membrane surface area, did not reverse the rigidity of the spheres.
Abstract: The two-dimensional steady state Navier-Stokes equations have been solved for branching flow, with parabolic entering flow profile. The results yield streamlines that agree well with experiment, and vorticity profiles that are sufficient to explain the migration of suspended particulates to the outer wall, in agreement with the observations of numerous investigators.
Abstract: Computational results are presented for a model of capillary blood flow consisting of red-cell shaped particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. The red cells are assumed to be axisymmetrically located in a circular tube and to maintain their biconcave disk shape during the motion. The cells are equally spaced along the tube and the motion is assumed to be sufficiently slow to make inertial terms negligible. The results show that the apparent viscosity is linear in the hematocrit at low hematocrits, but increases less rapidly at high hematocrits due to trapping of fluid between cells. The effect of rouleaux is…to slightly decrease the apparent viscosity. The most important parameter in determining the apparent viscosity is the ratio of the diameter of the red cells to capillary diameter.
Abstract: L’étude des paramètres d’hémolyse au cours de la conservation du sang prélevé sur ACD montre une évolution de ceux-ci entraînant une “fragilisation” des hématies. Les conséquences rhéologiques sont envisagées.
Abstract: Fluid instability in cultures of Tetrahymena pyriformis termed “bioconvection” [Science 133 , 1766, 1961] was examined during various stages of population growth. Subsurface swarms and sedimenting droplets or vertical columns of cells were observed microscopically and macroscopically. Analyses of their establishment, persistence and internal dynamics support the hypothesis that (1) bioconvection by such cells may be explained as a precipitation of a randomly formed subsurface region R of swarming cells that achieves a certain minimum width (0.3 cm) density contrast (2 × 10−4 g/cm3 ) between itself and the underlying fluid and sedimentation velocity (0.07…cm/sec). (2) viscous instability then shapes the falling R into a vertical column.
Abstract: Studies of rheological properties of blood of temperate zone mammals including man has revealed that there is little species difference. One Arctic animal, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus ) exhibits an elevated blood viscosity, especially at low temperatures. Possibly this property, which tends to reduce blood flow, is a part of a heat conservation mechanism.
vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 105-113, 1972