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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Determination with a Couette viscometer of the shear stress-shear rate relation for a non-Newtonian fluid is not simple because of the variation of shear rate within the viscometer gap. Exact methods for calculation of the shear rate have been presented by Krieger and Elrod, but they require extensive manipulation of the viscometric data. The present study shows that use of average values of shear stress and shear rate allows determination of the viscometric curve to within a few per cent of the exact relation. The error is found to remain finite even for extreme deviation from Newtonian behavior. For a…pseudo plastic power-law fluid the maximum per cent error in calculated viscosity at a given shear rate is given by [ ( s − 1 ) / 2 s ] × 100 , where s is the ratio of the outer to inner cylinder diameters. The method has the advantage that the average shear rates used do not depend on the fluid rheology and thus can be selected in advance.
Abstract: Measurements were taken of the viscoelastic properties of saliva and blood serum, by slightly modifying the capillary apparatus constructed earlier by two of the authors. The elastic property measured was the recoverable shear strain as a function of shear stress, which enables one to calculate the elastic shear modulus. The materials tested were collected from hospital patients suffering from a variety of diseases, such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, malignant neoplastic disease and Guillian–Barré syndrome. Measured values of the viscoelastic properties of the patients are found to be quite different from those of healthy persons, suggesting that the method developed by…the authors has a potential use for possible clinical application in testing saliva or serum of patients.
Abstract: Rheogoniometric measurements were made of the viscosity of human plasma and serum systems, and of solutions of fibrinogen and other plasma proteins with and without guard ring in combined Couette and cone and plate geometry at shear rates from 103 to less than 10−1 sec−1 . The exclusion of measurements of surface layers by the use of the guard ring always resulted in Newtonian flow characteristics, while the “overall viscosity”, measured without the guard ring, exhibited non-Newtonian behavior. The addition of 0.4% fibrinogen to 5% plasma or to 0.25% albumin concentration showed a marked increase of overall viscosity,…but such addition to 90% plasma or to 5% albumin exhibited no change in non-Newtonian behavior. These and other findings support the introduction of a new concept for the initiation of thrombosis which is based on the formation of polymolecular layers of fibrinogen and other plasma proteins, leading to obstruction of the affected blood vessel and impairment of the circulation. The aggregation of the proteins is considered to occur in two steps, viz. a first adsorption process on the surface of the vessel wall, followed by a growth process in which additional protein molecules adsorb on the first or previously formed adsorption layers.
Abstract: Eighty-seven per cent fresh red cells suspended in fresh homologous (heparinized) plasma exhibited decreasing viscosity with continued shear at flow rates of 0.02–0.2 tube diameters per second in a horizontal glass capillary 0.55 mm wide. There was some correlation with cigarette smoking. There also appeared to be a tentative connection between flow properties and early cancer.
Abstract: A variable shear rate, non-pulsatile capillary viscometer for measurements of blood circulating in chronic exteriorized A–V shunts in dogs has been constructed. Nominal values of reduced average velocity (Ū ) obtainable with this instrument range from 28 to 560 sec−1 in 200μ i.d. tubes. Experimental data are reported for measurements obtained from both native and heparinized blood. Conclusions are: (1) acute heparinization has no effect on the rheological properties of dog blood and (2) dog blood can be described as a pseudoplastic, non-Newtonian suspension, with apparent viscosity decreasing as either shear rate increases or hematocrit decreases. Both conclusions…are limited to the range of hematocrit (20–50 per cent) and Ū studied.