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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Measurements have been made of the relative changes of the flexibility and respiratory function of erythrocytes after adding aldosterone (10–5000 μ g/l.) to blood and cell suspensions. With whole blood no difference was observed. With washed cells or blood diluted many-fold in Ringer-Locke solution aldosterone significantly reduced these factors. Washing cells on its own produces a degree of inflexibility of the erythrocytes and the aldosterone effect is superimposed on this. Re-adding plasma to the washed cells reverses the inflexibility and prevents the aldosterone interaction. A similar decrease of flexibility and lowering of respiratory efficiency has been observed with patients having…Conn’s Syndrome. After treatment with aldactone, or surgical removal of the adrenal glands, these factors are significantly improved and nearer normal.
Abstract: Les auteurs font une revue générale des principaux travaux publiés concernant le problème de la rhéologie de l’hématie. Ils soulignent en particulier l’impossibilité de considérer l’hématie comme une particule solide et montrent l’importance de l’introduction de la notion de “viscosité interne”. Du point de vue microscopique, après avoir rappelé les principales techniques d’études des propriétés mécaniques du globule rouge, ils rappellent que certaines de celles-ci sont susceptibles de permettre de proposer des modèles rhéologiques globaux pour le comportement de la membrane érythrocytaire. Entin, il semble que la forme particulière de l’hématie soit due à une minimisation de l’énergie superficielle.
Abstract: Shear breakage of human blood cells in saline solution has been studied under conditions of uniform shear, non-penetrating thickeners having been added merely to facilitate application of a sufficiently high stress using a conventional cone and plate apparatus. Cells in isotonic saline fragment and many micro spheres are formed. In hypotonic saline, haemolysis replaces fragmentation; few microspheres result. A shear stress threshold exists for haemolysis. The shear stress required to produce 50% haemolysis depends on the type of thickening additive; values of 2200 and 10,000 dyne cm−2 are obtained for cells in Dextran and Methocel, respectively. Both microsphere formation…and degree of haemolysis depend on the applied shear stress and the time of shearing.
Abstract: The rheological behavior of blood and red cell suspensions was studied in five mammalian (man, dog, elephant, sheep and goat) and four non-mammalian (turkey, box turtle, frog and amphiuma) species. Normal red cells from these species were suspended in Ringer solution, serum, plasma and fibrinogen solutions; aldehyde-hardened red cells were suspended in Ringer solution. Viscosity measurements were made at different temperatures and over wide ranges of shear rates and cell volume concentrations, and the findings were correlated with the data on cell passage through micropores in polycarbonate sieves and on centrifugal packing. Analyses of the results indicate that the shape…(axial asymmetry or deviation from sphericity) of the suspended cells or aggregates exerts a greater influence than their size on the rheological behavior of blood. The cell shape can be changed by two shear-dependent phenomena: cell deformation and cell aggregation. Cell deformability is determined by membrane flexibility (area-to-volume ratio and tensile property of membrane) and the internal viscosity (physico-chemical state of internal fluid and MCHC). Cell aggregation depends on the aggregation tendency of RBC (deformability, etc.) and the aggregating effectiveness of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and α 1 - and β 2 -globulins). The shape change due to cell deformation and cell aggregation, together with the true cell volume concentration determine the effective cell volume concentration, which in turn is the final determinant of blood viscosity. Based upon the knowledge gained from such comparative studies, a systematic approach to analyze the hemorheological abnormalities in various hematological diseases has been proposed. Such studies promise to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and the methods of management in these disorders.
Abstract: High-speed cinematography was used to study the behavior of erythrocytes in the microcirculation of the human omentum and the canine mesentery. Normal human erythrocytes in the microcirculation of the human omentum and normal human or canine erythrocytes in the microcirculation of the canine mesentery exhibited remarkable flexibility. In capillaries the erythrocytes assumed a hollow paraboloid shape and, in larger vessels, reversible bending of the cells was frequently observed. In contrast, erythrocytes in the microcirculation of the omentum in patients with acquired hemolytic anemias were unaltered in shape when traversing capillaries. The cells in all observed vessels appeared as rigid, biconcave,…distorted disks. Human, canine or sheep erythrocytes, after treatment with glutaraldehyde or formalin and tannic acid, when infused into the microcirculation of the canine mesentery, retained their biconcave shape while traversing capillaries. The rigidity of erythrocytes in some types of hemolytic anemia may be responsible for their shortened life span, either because of increased trauma to the cells as they travel through the systemic circulation or because of splenic trapping.