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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human blood is a thixo-elasto-visco-plastic (TEVP) material that exhibits unique fluctuations in mechanical properties based on physiology, and shear rate. We demonstrate new visual tools to help visualize and characterize these varied mechanical properties. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to demonstrate contemporary visual and numerical tools to help visualize and characterize the varied mechanical properties of human blood. METHODS: Using the ARESG2 strain-controlled rheometer with double wall couette geometry and eight human blood donors, with lab test results, elastic and viscous properties are investigated using Series of Physical Processes (SPP) and MITLaos to both analyze and…visualize the mechanical signatures of the blood. RESULTS: Variations of mechanical properties are shown via SPP generated Cole-Cole plots and MITLaos analysis. These variations are a function of physiological properties of blood on the day of the blood draw based on hematocrit, fibrinogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, and a host of other proteins and constituents. Each rheological experiment with blood is replicated with an analogous experiments with 0.04 wt% xanthan in glycerol, and water to demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the human blood, and its rheological signatures are unique to human blood. CONCLUSIONS: Human blood is proven to be a TEVP material, as shown on a series of Cole-Cole plots for eight different donors, at two different frequency and strain amplitude combinations. Variations in Cole-Cole plots for each donor are shown. MITLaos average mechanical properties are calculated and shown. Aggregated elastic and viscous projections and a Cole-Cole plot is shown for Donors 1–8, along with 95% confidence interval.
Keywords: Human blood, hemorheology, triangle ramp, large amplitude oscillatory shear
vol. 58, no. 1-2, pp. 1-26, 2021
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a common disease globally. Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are widely used to treat HF. In contrast to the natural heart, different VADs generate different blood flow waves in the aorta. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the different inflow rate waveforms from the ascending aorta generate far-reaching hemodynamic influences on the human aortic arch. METHODS: An aortic geometric model was reconstructed based on computed tomography data of a patient with HF. A total of five numerical simulations were conducted, including a case with the inflow rate waveforms from the ascending aorta with normal…physiological conditions, two HF, and two with typical VAD support. The hemodynamic parameters, wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), relative residence time (RRT), and the strength of the helical flow, were calculated. RESULTS: In contrast to the natural heart, numerical simulations showed that HF decreased WSS and induced higher OSI and RRT. Moreover, HF weakened helical flow strength. Pulsatile flow VADs that elevated the WSS, induced some helical flow, while continuous flow VADs could not. CONCLUSIONS: HF leads to an adverse hemodynamic environment by decreasing WSS and reducing the helical flow strength. Based upon hemodynamic effects, pulsatile flow VADs may be more advantageous than continuous flow VADs. Thus, pulsatile flow VADs may be a better option for patients with HF.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Local vibration has shown promise in improving skin blood flow and wound healing. However, the underlying mechanism of local vibration as a preconditioning intervention to alter plantar skin blood flow after walking is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to use wavelet analysis of skin blood flow oscillations to investigate the effect of preconditioning local vibration on plantar tissues after walking. METHODS: A double-blind, repeated measures design was tested in 10 healthy participants. The protocol included 10-min baseline, 10-min local vibrations (100 Hz or sham), 10-min walking, and 10-min recovery periods. Skin blood flow was measured…over the first metatarsal head of the right foot during the baseline and recovery periods. Wavelet amplitudes after walking were expressed as the ratio of the wavelet amplitude before walking. RESULTS: The results showed the significant difference in the metabolic (vibration 10.06 ± 1.97, sham 5.78 ± 1.53, p < 0.01) and neurogenic (vibration 7.45 ± 1.54, sham 4.78 ± 1.22, p < 0.01) controls. There were no significant differences in the myogenic, respiratory and cardiac controls between the preconditioning local vibration and sham conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that preconditioning local vibration altered the normalization rates of plantar skin blood flow after walking by stimulating the metabolic and neurogenic controls.
Keywords: Control mechanism, skin blood flow, vibration therapy, wavelet analysis
vol. 58, no. 1-2, pp. 39-49, 2021
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Measurement of abnormal Red Blood Cell (RBC) deformability is a main indicator of Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) and requires standardized quantification methods. Ektacytometry is commonly used to estimate the fraction of Sickled Cells (SCs) by measuring the deformability of RBCs from laser diffraction patterns under varying shear stress. In addition to estimations from model comparisons, use of maximum Elongation Index differences (ΔEI max ) at different laser intensity levels was recently proposed for the estimation of SC fractions. OBJECTIVE: Implement a convolutional neural network to accurately estimate rigid-cell fraction and RBC concentration from laser diffraction patterns without…using a theoretical model and eliminating the ektacytometer dependency for deformability measurements. METHODS: RBCs were collected from control patients. Rigid-cell fraction experiments were performed using varying concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Serial dilutions were used for varying the concentration of RBC. A convolutional neural network was constructed using Python and TensorFlow. RESULTS and CONCLUSIONS: Measurements and model predictions show that a linear relationship between ΔEI max and rigid-cell fraction exists only for rigid-cell fractions less than 0.2. The proposed neural network architecture can be used successfully for both RBC concentration and rigid-cell fraction estimations without a need for a theoretical model.
Keywords: Ektacytometry, RBC, neural network, deep learning
vol. 58, no. 1-2, pp. 51-60, 2021