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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: It is shown how to determine parameters of a material obeying Casson’s equation by some rheometers. Casson has proposed an equation for the flow of varnishes relating the shear stress F to the rate of shear D . This relation has the form, ( F ) = k 0 + k 1 ( D ) , k 0 and k 1 being constants. This equation is generally called Casson’s equation. We have determined the…parameters k 0 and k 1 , that is, the viscosity η c corresponding to k 1 2 and the yield value τ f corresponding to k 0 , by a rotating coaxial cylinder viscometer and a cone and plate viscometer. The determination of the parameters can be made by the following procedure. First, we substitute the flow curve for Casson’s equation into the general relationship between the torque M and the angular velocity Ω for a non-Newtonian fluid. From a plot of Ω vs. M we can get an asymptote. Then we can determine η c from the slope of the asymptote and τ f from the intersection of the asymptote with the abscissa.
Abstract: The osmotic pressures of mixtures containing albumin, various dextrans and one hydroxyethyl starch sample were determined. The interaction coefficient was calculated in order to access the effectiveness of these plasma expanders as osmotic colloidal agents. A series of commercially prepared hydroxyethyl starch solutions was used in a viscometric evaluation of cell-protein interactions with resuspended red cells at low shear rates.
vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103-110, 1968
Abstract: A continuum model of fluid suspensions is applied to the Poiseuille flow of a fluid in which suspension deformations are negligible. A substructure spin boundary condition intermediate between zero spin and zero antisymmetric stress is formulated by introducing a wall condition parameter. A simple relation is postulated between the wall condition parameter and the suspension concentration and an expression is obtained for the relative viscosity of the fluid suspension. The resulting expression is found to agree closely with the experimental results of Vand [J. Phys. Colloid Chem. 52 , 300, 1948].
vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 111-118, 1968
Abstract: Using a Weissenberg rheogoniometer the steady shear flow properties of a series of synovial fluids from patients suffering from various forms of arthritis were examined. Clear differences in flow behavior were detected. In certain cases peak stresses were encountered in both the tangential and normal directions at the onset of shearing. Joint stiffness in anyone patient and hyaluronic acid/protein complex concentration were found to correlate with viscosity. Rheumatoid factors and antinuclear factors did not. Synovial fluid flow behavior showed no sign of circadian changes.
vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 119-131, 1968
Abstract: The problem of regional blood flow distribution in small vessels is considered by means of a passive model of a portion of the vascular bed. The following complexities are considered: (1) non-Newtonian behavior of blood including effects of red cell aggregation, (2) the complexity of the vascular geometry including taper, curvature and effects at bifurcations, and (3) flow unsteadiness. Three rheological models are considered, namely Newtonian, power-law and Casson fluids. It is shown that changes in flow distribution and even reversal of flow direction can occur if the fluid is non-Newtonian but not a power-law fluid. It is shown that…this condition is satisfied for blood in the low flow-rate regime where erythrocyte aggregation is important. Computations indicate that local pressure changes due to inertial effects as a result of vessel non-uniformity are not important. It is suggested that alterations in blood flow distribution due to rheological changes will show up experimentally in measurements of ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lung or in analysis of in vivo dye-dilution curves.
vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 147-161, 1968
Abstract: Hartert’s thrombelastograph is used to help in the diagnosis of abnormal conditions of blood clotting. Its practical usefulness lies in its capacity to distinguish borderline cases. It is felt that its efficiency for this purpose would be enhanced if the equations for the rate of increase of the complex modulus during coagulation and of its decrease during subsequent softening (fibrinolysis and/or retraction) were known. The parameters of these equations could then be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and the equations should also throw some light on the mechanism of fibrin polymerization and of softening. Experiments have been done…on bovine blood (also using a somewhat similar but larger torsiometer) and on human blood as well as on fibrinogen-thrombin. The polymerization process, especially in the case of fibrinogen-thrombin, appears to consist of two well-defined stages, an equation proposed in a previous paper holding in the earlier stage and a still simpler equation in the later stage; but the very last stage of coagulation does not follow any known equation. The effects of additions of substances known to induce or inhibit fibrinolysis and retraction in human blood were confirmed; but considerable differences were found, in some cases, in the behavior of bovine blood. Some marked effects on rate and extent of coagulation produced by these substances do not appear to have been previously recorded.
vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 163-176, 1968