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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Current tissue engineering technologies involve the seeding of cells on porous scaffolds, within which the cells can proliferate and differentiate, when cultured in bioreactors. The flow of culture media through the scaffolds generates stresses that are important for both cell differentiation and cell growth. A recent study [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 (2010), 024101] showed that flow-induced stresses inside highly porous and randomly structured scaffolds follow a three-point gamma probability density function (p.d.f.). The goal of the present study is to further investigate whether the same p.d.f. can also describe the distribution of stresses in structured porous scaffolds, what is the…range of scaffold porosity for which the distribution is valid, and what is the physical reason for such behavior. To do that, the p.d.f. of flow-induced stresses in different scaffold geometries were calculated via flow dynamics simulations. It was found that the direction of flow relative to the internal architecture of the scaffolds is important for stress distributions. The stress distributions follow a common distribution within statistically acceptable accuracy, when the flow direction does not coincide with the direction of internal structural elements of the scaffold.
Abstract: To elucidate the difference between Newtonian and shear thinning non-Newtonian assumptions of blood in the analysis of DES drug delivery, we numerically simulated the local flow pattern and the concentration distribution of the drug at the lumen–tissue interface for a structurally simplified DES deployed in a curved segment of an artery under pulsatile blood flow conditions. The numerical results showed that when compared with the Newtonian model, the Carreau (shear thinning) model could lead to some differences in the luminal surface drug concentration in certain areas along the outer wall of the curved vessel. In most areas of the vessel,…however, there were no significant differences between the 2 models. Particularly, no significant difference between the two models was found in terms of the area-averaged luminal surface drug concentration. Therefore, we believe that the shear thinning property of blood may play little roles in DES drug delivery. Nevertheless, before we draw the conclusion that Newtonian assumption of blood can be used to replace its non-Newtonian one for the numerical simulation of drug transport in the DES implanted coronary artery, other more complex mechanical properties of blood such as its thixotropic behavior should be tested.
Abstract: In this study, we simulated multiple red blood cells flowing through straight microvessels with the immersed-boundary lattice-Boltzmann model to examine the shear stress variation on the microvessel surface and its relation to the properties of cell-free layer. Significant variation in shear stress has been observed due to the irregular configuration of blood cells flowing near the microvessel wall. A low shear stress is typically found at locations where there is a cell flowing close to the wall, and a large shear stress at locations with a relatively wide gap between cell and wall. This relationship between the shear stress magnitude…and the distance between cell and wall has been attributed to the reverse pressure difference developed between the front and rear sides of a cell flowing near the vessel wall. We further studied the effects of several hemodynamic factors on the variation of shear stress, including the cell deformability, the flow rate, and the aggregation among red blood cells. These simulations show that the shear stress variation is less profound in situations with wider cell-free layers, since the reverse pressure difference around the edge cells is less evident, and the influence of this pressure difference on wall shear stress becomes weaker. This study also demonstrates the complexity of the flow field in the gap between cell and wall. More precise experimental techniques are required accurately measure such shear stress variation in microcirculation.
Keywords: Cell-free layer, wall shear stress, blood flows, microcirculation, red blood cell, lattice Boltzmann method, lubrication theory
vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 261-270, 2012
Abstract: The viscoelastic properties of porcine carotid tissue are investigated in this work. Experimental uniaxial stress relaxation tests along the longitudinal and circumferential directions of the vessel were performed for carotid strips extracted from 10 vessels. Directional and local differences – distal versus proximal position – in the tissue behavior were investigated. The experimental tests reveal a highly anisotropic, non-linear viscoelastic response and local dependence of the samples. The carotid artery shows anisotropic relaxation behavior for both proximal and distal samples. The highest stress relaxation was found in the circumferential tensile test for the highest applied strain at the distal position.…For the circumferential direction, the relaxation stress was higher than in the longitudinal being at its highest in the distal position. These facts show that the stress relaxation is higher in the distal than in the proximal position. However, there are no differences between both positions in the longitudinal direction. In addition, a constitutive law that takes into account the fundamental features, including non-linear viscoelasticity, of the arterial tissue is proposed. The present results are correlated with the purely elastic response and the microstructural analysis of the tissue by means of histological quantification presented in a previous study.
Keywords: Viscoelasticity, constitutive model, muscular and elastic artery
vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 271-288, 2012
Abstract: The outer parenchyma of carrot was tested using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), in air with 90% humidity between 30 and 90°C. Temperature plots of storage (SM i.e. elastic) and loss (LM i.e. inelastic) moduli were obtained. The SM and LM values were the basis for the calculation of the loss tangent (LT), the parameter expressing the ratio of inelastic to elastic parenchyma toughness. As expected, the tissue toughness decreased with increasing temperature. For both moduli, two characteristic temperature areas with temperature slope minima were observed – they were termed low (I) and high (II) temperature negative peaks on the temperature…slope plots. It was shown that the negative peaks were related to an increase in the inelastic part of the tissue toughness. All plots were dependent on the temperature rate: increasing the temperature rate (from 0.5 to 2°C/min) resulted in a shift of both the negative peaks I and II to higher temperatures, thereby reducing I and increasing II. It was shown that the observed behaviour cannot be described by simple kinetic equations due to the time dependent and complicated character of the thermally induced changes. These changes were interpreted as a consequence of pore protein denaturation followed by changes of the stress inside the parenchyma cells.
Keywords: Carrot, parenchyma, modulus of elasticity, DMA, denature
vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 289-298, 2012