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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Alterations of blood rheology related to muscular activity have been extensively studied over the last 20 years. It has been shown that exercise exerts a “triphasic” action on the rheological properties of blood. In the short term, exercise induces a transient hyperviscosity, mostly due to a rise in hematocrit and plasma viscosity, but also to alterations in erythrocyte rheology. Reversal of this hyperviscosity pattern over the following 24 h can be described as an “autohemodilution”. Later, training results in several profiles of “hemorheologic fitness” with a low hematocrit reflecting an expansion in plasma volume, and improvements in red cell rheology…(increased deformability, decreased aggregation, reduced disaggregation shear rate). Some specific aspects of these long-term adaptations have been described, such as the intriguing occurrence of a paradoxical improvement in RBC deformability during exercise in some athletes, and overtraining, which is associated with higher plasma viscosity. Given the variety of modes of exercise and the wide heterogeneity of their effects on blood rheology in the short and long term, many investigations remain to be performed in this area of clinical hemorheology.
Abstract: The benefit of coronary stent implantation is reduced by excessive intimal hyperplasia which re-narrows the artery and the prevention of which is still a primary concern for clinicians. Abnormal hemodynamics create non-physiological viscous stress on the artery wall, one of the root causes of intimal hyperplasia following stent implantation. A methodology to comprehensively evaluate the viscous stress on the artery wall following stent implantation would be useful to evaluate a stent's hemodynamic performance. The proposed methodology employs 3D computational fluid dynamics, the variables wall shear stress (WSS), WSS gradient (WSSG), WSS angle gradient (WSSAG) and a statistical analysis to…evaluate the viscous stress. The methodology is demonstrated and compared to a commonly used “threshold technique” for evaluating a stent's hemodynamic performance. It is demonstrated that the threshold technique is not adequate to fully analyse the viscous stress on the artery wall and can even be misleading. Furthermore, all three of the aforementioned variables should be considered as each provides a different perspective on the abnormalities that can arise in the arterial viscous stress. The hemodynamic performance of a stent can be assessed more comprehensively than with previously used methods by examining the arterial viscous stresses using the proposed methodology.
Abstract: The mechanical properties of liver can sensitively indicate the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Mechanical tissue characterization involves the analysis of the complex shear modulus measured either by oscillatory rheometry or by in vivo elastography. In this study, bovine liver specimens were investigated by oscillatory rheometry and multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in a common frequency range between 25.0 and 62.5 Hz. The results were compared with in vivo MRE of human liver. Storage and loss moduli were quantified, and the data were also analyzed employing a springpot model, yielding a stiffness-related parameter of 2.96±0.53 kPa in bovine liver by rheometry…and of 2.20±0.45 kPa in human liver by in vivo MRE. Furthermore, MRE of excised bovine liver showed that stiffness tended to increase with decreasing sample temperature. In conclusion, mechanical tissue characterization by multifrequency MRE agrees well with oscillatory rheometry, which validates MRE as a method for investigating the rheology of liver tissue.
Keywords: Magnetic resonance elastography, rheometry, liver viscoelasticity, springpot
vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 133-141, 2010
Abstract: Tissue engineering approaches are now being investigated for altering the course of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Because the disease changes the mechanical properties of the load bearing tissues of the disc, viscoelastic tissue behavior is a key measure for comparing the efficacy of treatments. To investigate the basic viscoelastic behavior of nucleus pulposus tissue, tissue from the rabbit disc was tested in torsional creep. Both the Andrade and Nutting creep models had a good fit to the data, however, the Andrade creep model gave a much better prediction of the longer term creep. This is the first application of Andrade…creep to biological tissue and results indicate that this model may be particularly well suited for characterizing the viscoelastic behavior of very soft biological tissues.
Keywords: Viscoelasticity, intervertebral disc, torsion, Nutting model
vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 143-151, 2010
Abstract: New in vitro methods are desirable for the analysis of platelet aggregation and screening novel anti-platelet agents using whole blood. To this end, we examined platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in whole human blood from healthy volunteers using a microchannel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Platelet aggregation in whole blood, treated with the activating agents ADP, collagen or ristocetin was detected in the MC-FAN by measuring the decrease in flow rate as a function of agent concentration. The results were compared with aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) in a conventional aggregometer, as measured by the increase in optical density. The…MC-FAN detected platelet aggregation in whole blood at two- to four-fold lower concentrations of agonist compared to those in PRP in the aggregometer. Anti-platelet agents attenuated the decrease in blood flow rate in the MC-FAN by inhibiting fibrin formation and platelet aggregation, but anticoagulants only inhibited fibrin formation and did not affect blood flow rates. These findings suggest that the MC-FAN system may be a useful method for the evaluation of platelet activation and facilitate the development of novel anti-platelet agents.
Keywords: Platelet aggregation, blood coagulation, anti-platelet agents, drug discovery, MC-FAN
vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 153-161, 2010