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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The coupled oxygen transport in the avascular wall of a coronary artery stenosis is studied by numerically solving the convection–diffusion equations. Geometry, replicating residual stenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), is used for the analysis. Important physiological aspects, such as oxygen consumption in the wall, oxygen carried by the hemoglobin, non-Newtonian viscosity of the blood, and supply of oxygen from the vasa vasorum are included. Mean blood flow rate in the lumen is varied from basal to hyperemic conditions. The results show that the PO2 in the medial region of the arterial wall is ∼10 mmHg. The…oxygen flux to the wall increases in the flow acceleration region, whereas it decreases at the flow reattachment zone. Near the location of flow separation there is a small rise and a sharp fall in the oxygen flux. The minimum PO2 in the avascular wall, PO2 , min , at the point of flow reattachment reduces to ∼6 mmHg for a 300 micron wall thickness. For a thinner wall of 200 micron, the PO2 , min at the location of flow reattachment increases to 6 times that of a 300 micron wall. The PO2 , min in the wall decreases by 60% when volumetric oxygen consumption is increased by 30% for the same avascular wall thickness.
Abstract: An ejection dynamics mathematical model of human left ventricle (LV) based on physiological data of human heart is proposed in this study. The mathematical equations were expressed in terms of vorticity-stream function equations in a prolate spheroidal coordinate system. These equations combined with specified boundary conditions were numerically solved by using an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) algorithm with second order accuracy. The unsteady aspects of the ejection process were subsequently introduced into the numerical simulation. The numerical results have shown that the present ellipsoidal model could be available to simulate the ejection process of the human LV. Such a model combined with…cardiac muscle mechanics could be studied further to determine altered left ventricular function in cardiac diseases.
Keywords: Left ventricle, ejection dynamics, alternating direction implicit algorithm, unsteady flow
vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 271-281, 2005
Abstract: Articular chondrocytes are exposed to significant changes in extracellular osmolarity during normal joint activity, which can lead to changes in cell volume and metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Chondrocytes can respond to cell swelling/shrinking by volume regulatory pathways, but the signalling pathways are poorly understood although a role for the cytoskeleton is frequently implicated. Here, we have investigated the effects of disruption of the chondrocyte F-actin cytoskeleton on the recovery of cell volume by RVD. The cytoskeleton was perturbed using the relatively specific agent latrunculin B (5 μM; 30 min) and loss of F-actin integrity quantified using fluorescent phalloidin-labelling…and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Imaging of isolated chondrocytes labelled with Fura-2 to measure the fluorescence associated with cell volume changes, showed that the extent of hypo-osmotic swelling was unaffected by latrunculin B treatment. Two categories of the chondrocyte RVD response were observed: ‘fast’ RVD where at 3 min post-osmotic challenge there was a recovery in cell fluorescence of ≥80%, whereas other cells exhibited ‘slow’ RVD. Latrunculin B increased the proportion of chondrocytes demonstrating ‘fast’ RVD by ∼10 fold and reduced those cells showing ‘slow’ RVD. An inhibitor of chondrocyte RVD (REV 5901) had no significant effect on the integrity of the cytoskeleton showing that the RVD response could be inhibited independent of the state of the F-actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that the intact cortical F-actin cytoskeleton has a restraining effect on the RVD response of isolated bovine articular chondrocytes.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to design a rheological analogue to periprosthetic fluid, for potential use in wear testing of orthopaedic implants. Polymer solutions of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan and mixtures thereof were prepared, and the experimentally determined viscosity–shear rate dependence was analyzed using the three-parameter modified Cross model. A mixture containing 0.185 wt% CMC and 0.075 wt% xanthan was identified as being the closest rheological match for periprosthetic fluid in both steady shear and oscillatory modes of deformation.
Abstract: The stiffness of erythrocytes in patients (N=45) suffering from certain disorders, such as coronary disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus has been assessed using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and compared with that in a group of healthy individuals (N=13). For each blood sample, around 20 erythrocytes were selected at random and the stiffness of each one was probed in 20–30 arbitrarily chosen points. From these results, distributions of the cell Young's modulus (YM) were determined. Average values and widths of YM distributions significantly increased in samples taken from diabetes mellitus patients and cigarette smokers, as compared to those taken from…healthy donors. At the same time, the average values of YM were found to increase as a function of the patient's age. We demonstrated that the atomic force microscope is a very sensitive tool for determination of cell stiffness with every prospect of a routine application as a diagnostic tool in quantitative analysis of the physiological and pathological states of red blood cells.
Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, red blood cell, cell stiffness, diabetes mellitus
vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 307-317, 2005