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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The rheological properties of blood were studied in patients supported by both the Jarvik-7 total artificial heart (TAH) and Novacor left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. Both groups of patients had abnormalities in blood rheology which differed according to the type of device implanted as well as on the clinical state of the patient. The rheology of individual patients correlated well with their clinical status and outcome, with incidences of TIA’s and/or stroke being accompanied by marked increases in relative blood viscosity, erythrocyte rigidity, fibrinogen concentration and platelet aggregation in varying combination. Observed abnormalities in…blood rheology were also crucial to thrombus formation on artificial heart valves as well. Our results show that the therapeutic management of rheological parameters should prove to be a unique and clinically rewarding approach to these patients.
Abstract: Plasma fractionation by membrane filtration permits the reinfusion of the patient with his own albumin. In this study, the influence of membrane nature and plasma flux on plasma fractionation in dead-end mode is investigated with acetate hollow fiber filters. It is found that transmembrane pressure TMP rises exponentially with time, the rate of increase being proportional to plasma flux. The faster TMP rises, the faster the drop in sieving coefficient SC. It is also found that albumin SC is a function of TMP and not of plasma flux. Theoretical analysis of the dead-end filtration was performed. This theoretical model indicates…that the observed variation of TMP with time is consistent with the assumptions that pore volume decreases proportionally to the filtrate plasma volume.
Abstract: We studied several non-Newtonian fluids to determine how closely they simulate the flow behavior of human blood. The viscous and viscoelastic properties of these fluids were compared with human blood samples in steady flow and transient flow Couette viscometers and in an oscillatory tube flow viscoelasticity analyzer. We examined: 1) A polyacrylamide suspension (Separan AP30 and AP45) to which we added 4% isopropanol and 0.01% magnesium chloride. 2) A suspension of 2% Dextran with 16% by weight biconcave disc-shaped particles simulating red blood cells. 3) 40% ghost cells prepared according to Dodge in Tri(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane. These ghost…cells were used to simulate the two-phase flow behavior of blood. 4) A suspension of 5% Dextran (70000) with 12% polystyrene particles (diameter of 1 μ m) and 10 mMol calcium chloride. All these fluids closely approximate the flow behavior of blood and can be used in a variety of different experimental situations. To measure velocity distribution using a laser-Doppler-anemometer, we used fluids #1 and #3 in a rigid T-junction simulating the first septal branch of the left descending coronary artery. The measurements were done in steady and pulsatile flow experiments at different flow rate ratios. The fluids showed large differences in velocity profiles compared to Newtonian fluids. A polyacrylamide suspension (Separan AP30 and AP45) to which we added 4% isopropanol and 0.01% magnesium chloride. A suspension of 2% Dextran with 16% by weight biconcave disc-shaped particles simulating red blood cells. 40% ghost cells prepared according to Dodge in Tri(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane. These ghost cells were used to simulate the two-phase flow behavior of blood. A suspension of 5% Dextran (70000) with 12% polystyrene particles (diameter of 1 μ m) and 10 mMol calcium chloride.
Abstract: Transient deformations of leukocytes (WBCs) were studied during their saltation along post-capillary venous endothelium (EC) in mesentery of the rat. During intermittent adhesion of WBCs to EC, prevailing fluid shear stresses, τ wall , resulted in a stepwise loading of the WBC upon attachment with a transient increase in length, L (t), and reduction in height, H (t). Measurements of L (t) and H (t) from frame-by-frame analysis of video recordings were modelled as the simple shear of a standard linear viscoelastic solid to facilitate calculation of the elastic (k 1 , k 2…) and viscous (μ ) elements with k 1 in parallel with serial elements k 2 and μ The magnitude of τ wall was determined from measurements of red cell velocity within the venule. During the spontaneous adhesion of WBCs, a value of cell viscosity (μ ) of 45 Poise was determined. Stimulating adhesion by topical application of the chemoattractant FMLP resulted in a 15-fold increase of μ to 668 Poise. Transient deformations during topical application of cytochalesin B to disrupt actin fibers within the WBC, yielded a 40% reduction in k 1 , compared to an 80% reduction with colchicine which disrupts the microtubule structure. Thus, colchicine treated cells appear to be twice as deformable as cells treated with cytochalesin. During adhesion stimulated by the cytokine Interleukin-1, μ increased 50% without changes in k 1 and k 2 , possibly due to slight activation of the WBC.
Abstract: A semi-empirical model is developed to describe the dependence of apparent viscosity of blood on vessel diameter (2.7 to 500 microns) and vessel discharge hematocrit (5% to 60%). The blood flow is modeled as a cell-rich core and a cell-free marginal layer in the larger vessels and an axial-train in the smaller vessels. Laminar (poiseuille) flow is assumed in all cases. An equation is derived in which apparent viscosity is a function of vessel diameter, core viscosity, and width of marginal layer. This is then complemented by empirical equations in which core viscosity varies exponentially with discharge hematocrit while the…width of marginal layer varies linearly with discharge hematocrit. The model correlates well with several sets of experimental data and behaves according to the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. Predicted apparent viscosity tends to the expected finite value for large vessel diameters. Dependence of apparent viscosity on vessel diameter is realistically smooth in the whole diameter range.
Abstract: We present a model for the calculation of intragranular vesicle adhesion energy in a two-vesicle system consisting of an external secretory vesicle (chromaffin granule) and an intragranular vesicle (IGV) that adheres from the inside to the granule membrane. The geometrical parameters characterizing the granule-IGV systems were derived from freeze-fracture electron micrographs. Adhesion is brought about by incubation of the granules in hyperosmolar sucrose solutions. It is accompanied by a deformation of the granule because the intragranular vesicle bulges it outwards, and by segregation of intramembraneous particles from the adherent part of the granule membrane. Adhesion prevents the deformed granules from…osmotic re-expansion and, therefore, causes hyperosmotic relaxation lysis. We estimated specific adhesion energy at −3 erg/cm2 , a value which is 10–1000 times larger than the energy of van der Waals interaction between membranes. This large interaction energy probably results from changes of the granule core induced by dehydration. A minimization of the interface between the granule core and adjacent membranes could exclude intragranular vesicles from the core and squeeze them towards the granule membrane. This might induce a new kind of interaction between both membranes, which is irreversible and causes lysis upon osmotic relaxation.
Abstract: Aggregation of human red blood cells (RBCs) induced by dextrans of various molecular weight has been studied by using a new ultrasonic interferometry method. This method, based on A-mode echography, allowed for the measurement of the accumulation rate of particles on a solid plate which is related to their sedimentation rate (i.e., to their mean size). The initial aggregation process, the mean and the maximum sedimentation rate of aggregates and the packing of the sedimented RBCs have been investigated. Effects of hematocrit, molecular weight of dextrans and inhibition by dextran 40 on the RBC aggregation induced by dextran of higher…molecular weight have been determined by analysing variations of the aggregate size. Results obtained confirm the aggregation effect of dextrans of molecular weights equal or higher than 70 000 dalton and disaggregation effect of dextran 40 000 dalton on aggregation by dextrans of higher molecular weight.
Abstract: The migration rate of small molecules through the structure of proteins can be monitored by quenching the light emitted from an excited optical probe located within the protein. In the present study we examined the influence of the solvent viscosity on the migration rate of the quencher anthraquinone sulfonate through myoglobin towards an excited Zn protoporphyrin molecule at the binding site of the protein. The solvent viscosity was increased by adding dextrans of different molecular weight but forming isoviscous solutions. The results demonstrate that the migration rate in the protein decreases with increasing solvent viscosity. This suggests that the fluctuations…on the protein structure, which make the above migration possible, are affected by the solvent macroviscosity.
Keywords: Solvent Viscosity, Myoglobin Dynamics
vol. 28, no. 1-2, pp. 99-105, 1991