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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Mathematical models involving hydrodynamically coupled oscillators are proposed to explain some self-synchronization phenomena observed in flagella and cilia. It is shown using elementary mathematical analysis and computer simulations that the behaviors of the models proposed are similar to those observed in experiment.
Keywords: Cilia, Flagella, Synchronization
vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 125-134, 1990
Abstract: Red blood cell (RBC) rouleaux were formed in a flow channel in the presence of 2 g/dl dextran (molecular weight 76,000). The partial separation of RBC rouleau doublets adhering to the floor of the flow channel in response to small oscillatory shear stresses was observed experimentally. Theoretical analyses on displacement and drag force were performed to determine whether the motion of the cell involves membrane rotation (i.e., rolling) or sliding. From the experimental data and the results of theoretical analyses, it is concluded that, under the conditions of the experiments, the RBCs in a doublet separate from each other by…rolling, rather than sliding of the sheared cell.
Abstract: Although the question whether the red cell is fluid or solid has been discussed since 17th century, it was the author’s measurement of the relative viscosity of blood in 1960’s that supplied the first direct evidence that the red cell interior is fluid. Furthermore, through his application of the equations of Taylor and, later, Oldroyd, to this problem, it became evident that, for the red cell to exhibit fluid-drop-like behavior, the membrane must also be fluid. This led to his concept of the red cell membrane as a complex two-phase structure (lipoprotein micelles and two-dimensional protein networks) which was similar…to the one accepted nearly a decade later. The requirements of the theory of ideal emulsions that the shear stress be transmitted into the cell interior via low viscosity membrane, are met in the later work of other investigators using the concept of a tank-treading membrane having viscoelastic properties. This paper reviews the original work of the author which led to the development of an equation for the relative viscosity of blood as a function of volume concentration, C: η r = ( 1 − TkC ) − 2.5 , valid at shear rates above 180 sec−1 , in which T is the Taylor factor which gives a measure of fluidity of the red cell, and k is a plasma trapping factor. Both T and k increase with increasing rigidity of the red cell. Finally, the effect of the membrane viewed as a complex two-phase fluid, on the rheology of the red cell is discussed.
Keywords: red cell, fluid-drop-like behavior, ideal emulsion theory, blood viscosity equation, red cell rigidity parameter, plasma trapping factor, membrane structure, two-phase system, membrane tank treading
vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 149-161, 1990
Abstract: In the present study a two-dimensional finite element model for incompressible Newtonian flow is applicated to the modelling of carotid artery flow. In earlier studies, the numerical model was validated experimentally for several flow configurations. In general the pulsatile flow is characterized by reversed flow regions at the non-divider side walls of both the internal and external carotid arteries. The unsteadiness of the flow is associated with rather complex spatial and temporal velocity distributions and leads to temporal variations of the location and length of the reversed flow regions. As a consequence, pronounced spatial and temporal variations in the wall…shear stresses are found. At the non-divider side walls, wall shear stresses are relatively low and exhibits an oscillatory behaviour in space and time. At the divider side walls, wall shear stresses are relatively high and approximately follow the flow rate distribution in time. The aim of this study is not only to present two-dimensional calculations but also to compare the calculated two-dimensional velocity profiles with those from three-dimensional experiments. It is observed that in the common carotid artery and in the proximal parts of the internal and external carotid arteries, the two-dimensional numerical model provides valuable information with respect to the three-dimensional configuration. In the more distal parts of especially the internal carotid artery, deviations are found between the two-dimensional numerical and three-dimensional experimental model. These deviations can mainly be attributed to the neglect of the secondary velocity distribution in the two-dimensional model. In the two-dimensional numerical model the influence of a minor stenosis in the internal carotid artery is hardly distinguishable from a minor geometrical variation without stenosis. Full three-dimensional analyses of the influence of minor stenoses are needed to prove numerically whether in-vivo measurements of the axial velocity distribution are useful in the detection of minor stenoses.
Abstract: RBC aggregation and viscoelasticity parameters were determined for 40% suspensions of washed cells in autologous plasma from elephant seals (ES), Mirounga angustirostris , ringed seals (RS), Phoca hispida , and swine, (SS), Sus scrofa . Interspecific comparisons including human (HS) blood data revealed unusual rheological properties of seal blood relative to that from pigs or man: 1) RBC aggregation extent, rate and sedimentation were lower for seals (AI=0, ZSR=.40, ESR=0 for RS blood) relative to humans; 2) Viscous (η ′ ) and elastic (η ″ ) components of complex viscosity…(OCRD) were lower for both seal species relative to SS blood, but only at shear rates ⩽ 10 sec−1 (P < 0.05), while η ″ / η ′ ratios for RS blood were lower than HS blood at all shear rates (P < 0.01); 3) Blood viscosity measurements for RS and SS blood from rotational viscometry (Contraves) were consistent with OCRD data; 4) Seal plasma fibrinogen levels were low compared to pigs or humans (RS fibrinogen = -43% v. HS and -57% v. SS; ES fibrinogen = -58% v. HS and -69% v. SS). Electrophoretic mobility of RS red cells was +25% relative to those of humans. These results demonstrate differences in hemorheological indices among mammalian species and suggest the value of comparative rheologic studies.
Abstract: Flow autoregulation in the arteriolar network serves to maintain the capillary-tissue fluid balance by regulation of capillary pressure. In the present study, we have examined theoretically the effects of arteriolar vasomotion and venous pressure elevation on the capillary fluid exchange, the interstitial fluid pressure, and the interstitial osmotic pressure during capillary pressure regulation. We used Starling’s hypothesis and extended it to include a consideration of a parallel hetero-porous pathway and to determine the effects of plasma protein filtration on interstitial fluid pressure and osmotic pressure. We have found that arteriolar vasomotion plays a primary role in protecting the capillary-tissue fluid…balance during the elevation of capillary flow and that it is a secondary mechanism for the regulation of capillary arterial pressure.
Abstract: The effect of intercellular bonding on the stress-strain behavior of soft plant tissue is considered. In our mechanical model, a conglomerate of identical cells is arranged in a regular array. Each cell is pressurized and bonded across flat contact areas with adjacent cells in the direction of the applied load. The cell wall is a finitely-deformed mechanical membrane bounding an incompressible fluid (the cytoplasm). A nonlinear elastic constitutive law is presented that describes data for apple parenchyma. Results show that intercellular bonding has a strong effect on the macroscopic properties of the whole tissue. A larger intercellular contact area increases…tissue stiffness and magnifies the effect of initial turgor pressure on tissue stiffness.