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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: Reversible aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) plays an important role in determining the flow properties of blood. To study different factors affecting RBC aggregation we used a new commercially available erythro-aggregameter (SEFAM, Nancy, France). The method allows the photometric quantitation of the kinetics of RBC aggregation and the estimation of the shear resistance of the aggregates. Modification of the hematocrit acts mostly on the determination of the disaggregation shear rate, while plasma composition strongly affects all measurements. Anticoagulants per se do no influence the aggregation process, but can alter the value of the parameters through a plasma dilution effect.…Presence of white blood cells and platelets in the sample did not modify the data. Study on the effects of low concentration of heparin and low molecular weight heparin showed that at therapeutical doses these drugs did not alter the values of the aggregation parameters. Provided that precise guidelines are followed for the processing of blood samples, this method may serve to investigate RBC aggregation in various diseases and to search for adequate hemorheologic treatment.
Keywords: RBC aggregation, hematocrit, anticoagulants, plasma dilution, heparin, white cells and platelets
vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 785-797, 1989
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the hydrodynamics of branching flow in relation to the blood supply to the basal part of the brain. A series of measurements of the branching loss-coefficients under laminar steady flow were conducted using model branches with various geometries, and the effect of branching on blood supply to distal areas was described using a lumped-parameter model of the vascular structure. It was revealed that in the blood circulation, branching loss is important where a small artery divides off with a large branching angle from a large trunk. It was also indicated that the effect of…such branching on the distal blood supply might become more significant when the peripheral resistance is reduced, thereby increasing the blood velocity in the trunk.
Keywords: Biofluid mechanics, branching flow, energy loss coefficient, cerebral circulation
vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 799-811, 1989
Abstract: Methods for measuring the adhesiveness, plasticity, viscoelasticity and spinnability of mucus microsamples have been developed. The rheological properties of the rat gastric and duodenal gel mucus have been analyzed and compared. Using a controlled stress rheometer (Carri-Med), flow and creep experiments showed that gastroduodenal mucus exhibits a typically non-newtonian, pseudoplastic and viscoelastic behaviour. The apparent viscosity (7,800 ± 11,000 Pa.s) and yield stress (24.9 ± 8.5 Pa) of gastric mucus were significantly higher than the duodenal mucus viscosity (39 ± 160 Pa.s) and yield stress (12.9 ± 2 Pa). Spinnability of gastric mucus, measured with a Filancemeter (SEFAM), was significantly…lower (4.9 ± 2.5 mm) in comparison to duodenal mucus (6.9 ± 1.5 mm). Adhesive properties of gastric mucosa (analyzed with the platinum ring method) were not significantly different in comparison to duodenal mucus (99.9 ± 31.5 mN/m and 92.8 ± 11.2 mN/m, respectively).
Abstract: We employed a static-incubation assay to determine the intensity of wall shear stress (τ ) needed to detach human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (HPMNs) from human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE) monolayers. Confluent monolayers of HUVE were placed in a parallel-plate flow chamber which was mounted on the stage of an inverted tissue culture microscope, attached to a perfusion system and maintained at 37°C. All events in the selected fields were recorded using videomicroscopy. HPMNs were co-incubated for 15 minutes with the HUVE monolayers under control conditions or in the presence of 10−7 M formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Following this static incubation, a series…of five individual flows, each 1 minute in duration, were driven through the flow channel, exposing the cells to 1.0, 2.0, 3.8, 7.6 and 14.8 dyn/cm2 wall shear stresses. Under control conditions, the percentage of HPMNs remaining attached to the HUVE monolayers following exposure to each shear stress was 61, 38, 25, 12 and 5, respectively. In the FMLP-treated condition, the percentage of HPMNs remaining attached to the monolayers was significantly greater than control at all five levels of τ . Thus, under control conditions, adherent HPMNs can be detached from endothelial cell monolayers in vitro with levels of shear stress normally found in the microcirculation (18). In the presence of FMLP, the level of shear stress needed to overcome the adhesions is increased significantly.
Abstract: The effects of polar nature of blood and pulsatility on flow through a stenosed tube have been analysed by assuming blood as a micropolar fluid. Linearized solutions of basic equations are obtained through consecutive applications of finite Hankel and Laplace transforms. The analytical expressions for axial and particle angular velocities, wall shear stress, resistance to flow and apparent viscosity have been obtained. The axial velocity profiles for Newtonian and micropolar fluids have been compared. The interesting observation of this analysis is velocity, in certain parts of cycle, for micropolar fluid is higher than Newtonian fluid. Variation of apparent viscosity η…a with tube radius shows both inverse Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Fahraeus-Lindqvist effects. Finally, the resistance to flow and wall shear stress for normal and diseased blood have been computed and compared.
Abstract: Aggregation of erythrocytes is studied as function of time during their sedimentation process under the gravitational field. The method is based on ultrasonic scattering from the various blood samples in presence and absence of inhomogeneous magnetic field (IMF) and dextran 70 (10%). The experimental arrangement is consisting of ultrasonic transmitter and receiver probes placed in mutually perpendicular direction intersecting at the sampling volume of blood located at the centre of the blood column. The temporal kinetic process is represented in terms of histograms of amplitudes and number of scattering fluctuations related to the size and motion of aggregates. The results…show that the application of IMF influences the aggregation and sedimentation of erythrocytes. The aggregates thus formed sediment faster than that of control sample. The aggregate formation and their movements in presence of dextran 70 are slower than that of normal blood which may be attributed to the enhanced suspending medium viscosity and their interaction with erythrocytes.
Keywords: Erythrocytes aggregation, ultrasound, scattering, histograms, dextran, inhomogeneous magnetic field
vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 847-862, 1989
Abstract: The effects of suspending medium osmolality (166 to 736 mosm/kg) on relative viscosity (η r ) and tube hematocrit (HT ) measured in 33 diameter tubes were studied for 40, 47 and 57% feed hematocrit (HF k) suspensions of human RBC in buffer. At all feed hematocrits, η r increased sharply for the hypertonic media, but was essentially insensitive to hypotonicity. HT /HF was less affected by osmolality (13% change over the entire range of osmolality and feed hematocrit). Viscosities could not be calculated from the experimental HT values. However, η r could be predicted from…RBC number concentration and the tube diameter/RBC volume ratio via a semi-empirical model. RBC transport efficiency depended on both feed hematocrit and osmolality, and was maximal at or near isotonic conditions. Our results appear applicable to non-isotonic regions of the microcirculation, and to estimation of flow resistance for RBC with abnormal cellular mechanical properties.
Keywords: Viscosity, Tube Hematocrit, Fåhraeus-Lindqvist effect, Fåhraeus effect, RBC Transport
vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 863-874, 1989