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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: The resting shape of the human erythrocyte is maintained mainly by the elastic properties of its membrane. There is evidence that negative spontaneous membrane curvature is the cause of the biconcave shape; also negative membrane curvature is thought to be enhanced under “stomatocytogenic” influences and reduced under “echinocytogenic” influences. Experimental tests of these hypotheses are difficult in the absence of objective methods to quantify cell shape and/or membrane curvature. A new method is introduced to estimate the changes in convex and concave curvatures of the cell outlines in larger populations of RBC. It is based on the so-called “tangent count”…procedure, carried out on microphotographs of freely suspended, randomly oriented RBCs in isotonic solutions. The method was validated by subjective shape assessment according to BESSIS’ classification. It proved to be most sensitive in the range of moderate shape changes (classified subjectively as echinocyte II and stomatocyte II).
vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 455-469, 1985
Abstract: Three rotational viscometers for blood viscometry were compared at moderate and high shear. At high shear, coefficients of variation were all around 1% increasing 5-fold (Wells-Brookfield) and 3-fold (Carri-Med) when shear was lowered. Using pathological samples the coefficients of variation for the Carri Med mashine was doubled. Only the Contraves LS-30 viscometer showed neither an increasing coefficient of variation with declining shear, nor problems when measuring blood with suspension instability.
Abstract: Data are presented on the rheological and hemolytic behavior of whole human blood as it ages while stored at 4°C (as in blood banking practice) up to 26 days. The viscometric properties of steady shear viscosity η and oscillatory (complex) viscosity η ∗ = η ′ − i η ″ reported over ranges of shear rate γ ˙ and radian frequency ω of 33 < γ ˙ < 4130 s−1 and 1.5 < ω <…48 s−1 ; data on autologous plasma are given for reference. The Cox-Merz relation, η ( γ ˙ ) = | η ∗ ( ω ) | ω = γ ˙ , is found to be a good approximation, with η ⩾ | η ∗ | , over the range studied. Release of hemoglobin (Hgb) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the plasma during shearing is tracked as a function of time for 30 min, and its sensitivity to γ ˙ magnitude is measured. Bloods from four different donors are studied, with primary attention given to one (SSR). For all bloods, the release of both Hgb and LDH increases with storage age, but differences in such aging characteristics between different bloods can be substantial (even when rheological properties are identical). A post-shear incubation at 4°C for one day shows no enhancement of plasma Hgb and LDH levels beyond those expected from normal aging after the shearing experience, demonstrating the absence of significant delayed-action effects as a consequence of shearing trauma.
Abstract: Five constitutive laws are investigated to model the effect of machine milking. A nonlinear least squares procedure is employed to estimate material constants from in vivo teat inflation data. An exponential form is found to be statistically adequate as a constitutive law, and is used to determine the mechanical stresses in teat tissue during finite deformations.
Abstract: Transient rheological behavior of blood which involves non newtonian viscosity, elasticity and thixotropy can be modelized with a Maxwell rheological state equation which depends on a structure parameter having dimension of a shear rate. Identification of the model parameters leads to use an exponential apparent shear rate step and to use recursive filters for taking into account the impulse response of the viscometer servo-control device. Typical results for a normal blood sample are given.
Keywords: blood viscosity, thixotropy, viscoelasticity, rheological model
vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 509-520, 1985
Abstract: Blood flow through a stenosed artery has been investigated in this paper. Blood has been represented by a non-Newtonian fluid obeying Herschel-Bulkley equation. This model has been used to study the influence of the fluid behaviour index n, shear-dependent nonlinear viscosity K and the yield stress τ H in blood flow through stenosed arteries. The variation of the wall shear stress and the flow resistance with n, K and τ H has been shown graphically. It is observed that the wall shear stress and the flow resistance increase in Herschel-Bulkley fluid in comparison with corresponding Newtonian fluid. It…is of interest to note that, in the present model, the thickness of the plug core varies with the axial distance z in the stenotic region. Finally, some biological implications of the present model for some arterial diseases have been briefly discussed.