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Biorheology is an international interdisciplinary journal that publishes research on the deformation and flow properties of biological systems or materials. It is the aim of the editors and publishers of
Biorheology to bring together contributions from those working in various fields of biorheological research from all over the world. A diverse editorial board with broad international representation provides guidance and expertise in wide-ranging applications of rheological methods to biological systems and materials.
The aim of biorheological research is to determine and characterize the dynamics of physiological processes at all levels of organization. Manuscripts should report original theoretical and/or experimental research promoting the scientific and technological advances in a broad field that ranges from the rheology of macromolecules and macromolecular arrays to cell, tissue and organ rheology. In all these areas, the interrelationships of rheological properties of the systems or materials investigated and their structural and functional aspects are stressed.
The scope of papers solicited by
Biorheology extends to systems at different levels of organization that have never been studied before, or, if studied previously, have either never been analyzed in terms of their rheological properties or have not been studied from the point of view of the rheological matching between their structural and functional properties. This biorheological approach applies in particular to molecular studies where changes of physical properties and conformation are investigated without reference to how the process actually takes place, how the forces generated are matched to the properties of the structures and environment concerned, proper time scales, or what structures or strength of structures are required.
Biorheology invites papers in which such 'molecular biorheological' aspects, whether in animal or plant systems, are examined and discussed. While we emphasize the biorheology of physiological function in organs and systems, the biorheology of disease is of equal interest. Biorheological analyses of pathological processes and their clinical implications are encouraged, including basic clinical research on hemodynamics and hemorheology.
In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine,
Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. With increasing focus on new applications of nanotechnology to biological systems, rheological studies of the behavior of biological materials in therapeutic or diagnostic medical devices operating at the micro and nano scales are most welcome.
Abstract: A part of the large cylindrical cell of Nitella expansa , which showed vigorous cytoplasmic streaming, was compressed and flattened between a pair of parallel glass walls and the velocity distributions of the cytoplasm and the cell sap were measured. The velocity and the velocity gradient of the endoplasm were changed as the width of the stream was modified. From these measurements we calculated both the motive force responsible for the cytoplasmic streaming and the force resisting the shifting at the endoplasm-ectoplasm boundary. In the calculation it was assumed that (1) the motive force was independent of the load applied…and (2) the sliding resistance was proportional to the velocity of the outermost layer of the stream. The shear stress/shear rate relation was obtained from the endoplasmic drop isolated in vitro according to the agar capillary method developed earlier by the authors. Thus the motive force was found to be 1.7 dyn cm−2 in good agreement with the data previously reported. It was further known that the major part of the motive force was used in overcoming the resistance to the sliding at the endoplasm-ectoplasm boundary. Less than 1 per cent of the motive force was necessary to bring about the shear of the cell sap in the normal cell. The resistance per unit sliding velocity was of the order of 230 dyn sec cm−3 .
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 179-187, 1973
Abstract: Depuis les premiers travaux d’Abramson, au début du siècle, de nombreux auteurs ont envisagé l’étude des phénomènes électrocinétiques aux interfaces biologiques. C’est ainsi que Furchgott et Ponder, Pollack, SachtIeben, Seaman, Larcan et StoItz se sont plus particulièrement intéressés aux hématies, alors que Hampton et Mitchell, Seaman, Stoltz et Larcan, Grottum ont étudié les problèmes plaquettaires. L’étude des éléments blancs a été envisagée par quelques auteurs (Bangham, Bert, Lichtman et Weed). Le but de ce travail est d’envisager une revue générale concernant les travaux réalisés sur les propriétés électrocinétiques du globule rouge, des plaquettes et des lymphocytes humains. La…première partie consacrée au globule rouge envisage plus particulièrement: — l’étude de certains groupements ionisés de la membrane, et en particulier l’acide sialique. C’est ainsi que l’action des enzymes protéolytiques est envisagée dans un cadre immunohématologique; — l’approche de certaines réactions immunologiques, et plus particulièrement l’action des anticorps de type complet. l’étude de certains groupements ionisés de la membrane, et en particulier l’acide sialique. C’est ainsi que l’action des enzymes protéolytiques est envisagée dans un cadre immunohématologique; l’approche de certaines réactions immunologiques, et plus particulièrement l’action des anticorps de type complet. En ce qui concerne les plaquettes, l’application la plus intéressante est certainement la corrélation entre les phénomènes électrocinétiques et l’agrégation plaquettaire, aussi bien in vitro , sous l’influence de certaines drogues, qu’in vivo (thrombose, choc, etc.). L’application à certaines thrombopathies (Glanzman) est également envisagée. Pour cet élément, il ne faut également pas oublier les études fondamentales des groupements ionisés; c’est pourquoi les auteurs font le point sur les connaissances actuelles concernant ceux-ci (groupements SH et leur rapport avec l’agrégation, groupements phosphate, groupements NH2 , groupements COO− , etc.). Enfin, la dernière partie traite du lymphocyte avec le problème des groupements ionisés déjà rencontré pour les plaquettes. Les applications immunologiques sont également envisagées (action des anticorps de groupe sanguin en particulier). Enfin, le problème des substances antilymphocytes est étudié dans le cadre de certaines variations pathologiques.
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 189-205, 1973
Abstract: The flow of viscous fluids through a tapered tube is very interesting from the standpoint of blood flow in blood vessels. The taper of the tube is an important factor in the pressure development. In the first place, we have given a brief summary of our theory of the steady convergent flow of non-Newtonian fluids characterized by an arbitrary time-independent flow curve through a slightly tapered tube. Based on our general formula for the flow per unit time, explicit formulae of the pressure gradient are obtained in several cases of non-Newtonian fluids specified by particular flow curves: power law fluid,…Bingham body, and the fluid obeying Casson’s equation. In all these cases it is shown that the pressure gradient is not constant along the axis but increases with decrease in the radius of the tapered tube. If we neglect quantities of order α 2 (α : angle of taper), then the pressure gradient increases linearly with the distance along the axis of the tube.
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 207-212, 1973
Abstract: After decades of indirect studies about the phenomenon of pathological red cell aggregation (RCA), a method was developed which allows the photometric quantification of the kinetics of this most important hemorheological abnormality in viscometric flow in vitro . When compared to physiological RCA, the shear resistance is increased, the rouleaux are clumped due to side-to-side attachment and the aggregate grows in size during viscometric flow. Since only small volumes (5–10μ l) are required for microrheological tests, the serum proteins responsible for pathological RCA in myeloma patients were analysed. So far, α 2 M and IgM could be identified as globulins…producing RCA, however with distinct differences. The effect of high molecular weight Dextrans and of changes in hematocrit value are also studied.
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 213-227, 1973
Abstract: The human red blood cell is known to consist of a thin, flexible membrane filled with a concentrated solution of hemoglobin which has been shown to behave as a Newtonian fluid. The plasma in which red blood cells are suspended is also Newtonian. The properties of the red blood cell membrane are less well known and there are estimates of elastic moduli reported in the literature differing by as much as a factor of 103 . The lowest elastic modulus appears in uniaxial tension tests in which one of the principal stresses in the membrane is zero. The largest moduli…result from tests in which the tension in the membrane is isotropic, such as in sphering of red blood cells, near hemolysis. It is shown that these disparate moduli can be incorporated into a single description of the red blood cell membrane by use of the notion of the strain energy function. The derivatives of the strain energy function with respect to the Greens strain components yield the stress components. The expressions are valid for large strains such as occur in red cell membranes in sphering and sieving experiments. The main features of the red cell membrane that emerge are that it is much stiffer with respect to changes of areas than for strains in which the area is constant. The red blood cell membrane has also been shown to be viscoelastic to some extent and such behavior is incorporated by a modification of the stress-strain relations derived by use of the strain energy function. Applications of the proposed modelling of the red blood cell are discussed for sphering, sieving and pipette experiments and the flow of red blood cells in the microcirculation.
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 229-238, 1973
Abstract: The flow properties of the mesomorphic melts (smectic liquid crystals) of ammonium salts of higher fatty acids are measured. It is found characteristic for these mesomorphic melts that they generally show non-Newtonian flow and also that they show anomalous viscosity–temperature curves which have a sharp maximum near the transition temperature of anisotropic melt into isotropic liquid, so far as the applied shear rate is not so high. Such characteristic behaviour is discussed from the viewpoint of the translational and rotational molecular motions in the mesomorphic melts under given experimental conditions.
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 239-247, 1973
Abstract: The fracture of a bone, or the rupture of a blood vessel can constitute a serious condition which may lead to a grave illness or even paralysis and sudden death. Preceding the break there is a transition region from continuous flow which exhibits for materials of the most varied types of consistencies and conditions danger signals in the form of fatigue, volume dilatancy, work hardening, enbrittlement and cracking up, all of which present frequently an unexpected and even paradoxical appearance. In many cases there is time during the transition region to take remedial action which prevents breakage to occur…and brings the material back to its original state. This will be demonstrated on some industrial materials, and one may expect a similar behaviour for some biological materials particularly under certain pathological conditions. This would be of special interest.
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 257-260, 1973