Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging - Volume 5, issue 4
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 110.00
Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging (BSI) is a multidisciplinary journal devoted to the timely publication of basic and applied research that uses spectroscopic and imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, environmental science, food science, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Scientists are encouraged to submit their work for publication in the form of original articles, brief communications, rapid communications, reviews and mini-reviews.
The journal is dedicated to providing a single forum for experts in spectroscopy and imaging as applied to biomedical problems, and also for life scientists who use these powerful methods for advancing their research work. BSI aims to promote communication, understanding and synergy across the diverse disciplines that rely on spectroscopy and imaging. It also encourages the submission of articles describing development of new devices and technologies, based on spectroscopy and imaging methods, for application in diverse areas including medicine, biomedical science, biomaterials science, environmental science, pharmaceutical science, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, microbiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Abstract: Background: infrared imaging has emerged as a new promising tool in histopathology to provide label free analysis of tissue sections. Interestingly, infrared imaging has the potential to measure many markers at the same time, on one section, without staining. It has been demonstrated to deliver accurate results in numerous cancer pathologies. Yet, today, it is not used in routine diagnostics. The gap between the demonstrated potential and the applications is striking. The reasons why FTIR imaging is not used in the clinics are multiple but one of them is a major obstacle: the diversity of sample preparation, image recording parameters…and pre-analytical methods used by the different research groups. This diversity prevents comparison of data and thereby the large scale validation necessary to enter the medical world. Objective: we will briefly review here the main aspects of data acquisition and processing used in infrared imaging of tissue sections for which a common approach should be considered. Results: considering requirement for spectral histopathology, the development of the technology and the literature on this topic, guidelines ruling sample preparation and pre-analytical methods do emerge. Conclusions: consensus values are proposed for most parameters whose current diversity prevents the exchange of data among institutions and thereby the validation of the method on a large scale.
Abstract: Thermography is a clinical imaging technique that has been applied to diverse pathologies in very diverse clinical areas such as dermatology, rheumatology, oncology and emergency medicine to name a few. Even though there are plenty of reports that indicate thermography could be used in a clinical setting it has yet to fulfill its promise of becoming a commonly used diagnostic technique. One of the main reasons is the lack of standard procedures to obtain and analyze thermograms, standardization has proven difficult due to the lack of collaboration between physicists and physicians that could allow the integration of thermal models to…clinical findings. In this general overview of the field several thermography applications are presented along with theory and modeling of thermal processes in biological tissue in an attempt to promote the formation of interdisciplinary teams that could develop medical standards for clinical thermography.
Keywords: Thermography, non-invasive clinical diagnosis, biological thermal modeling, heat transfer in biological tissue
Abstract: Molecular structure changes are closely related to nutrient utilization and availability. However, so far little research was found to determine the processing induced changes on carbohydrate structure in co-products from bio-oil processing. The objectives of this study were to investigate synergistic effects of conditioning temperature (70, 80 and 90°C) and time (50 and 75 s) during the pelleting process on carbohydrate structure profile of the co-products from bio-oil processing (canola meal). The vibrational molecular spectroscopy (ATR-VMS) with chemometrics was used to determine the impact of pelleting at different conditions on the inherent molecular structure changes. The molecular spectral analyses, Univariate…and Multivariate spectral analyses, were used in this study. Multivariate spectral analyses included cluster analysis and principal analysis. The chemical functional groups mainly associated with carbohydrate structure profile in this lipid-free co-products (or with very little lipid) included cellulosic compounds (CEL, ranged at ca. 1302–1186 cm−1 ), structural CHO (SCHO, ranged at ca. 1488–1186 cm−1 ) and total CHO (TCHO, ranged at ca. 1193–879 cm−1 ). The results showed that the pelleting process was able to alter inherent structures of CHO functional groups in the co-products from bio-oil processing. The univariate molecular analysis indicated that spectral intensities of CHO functional groups in the co-products were significantly affected by the pelleting process in the current study (P < 0.05 ). Altering processing conditions resulted changes in molecular structure features of CHO functional groups except TCHO. The results of multivariate spectral analysis of CHO indicated that inherent CHO structural characteristics of all functional groups were not fully distinguished. This study demonstrated that the pelleting process under the conditions investigated caused partial changes in carbohydrate structures in terms of the spectral features of specific functional groups. These changes were not sufficient enough to make the entire spectral region of CHO functional groups become fully distinguishable. Future research is needed to investigate the interactive relationships between the absorption intensities of carbohydrate functional groups (TCHO, SCHO, CEL) and biodegradation and digestion of the co-products in order to reveal how carbohydrate molecular structure changes induced by processing affect nutritive availability.
Keywords: Carbohydrate molecular structure, pelleting, conditioning temperature and time, functional groups, co-products from bio-oil processing, chemometrics
Abstract: Millions of people in Bangladesh are exposed to high concentration of the toxic element arsenic (As) through drinking water and consumption of foods. It has also been reported that Bangladeshis have a low intake of the essential element selenium (Se), which is known to be important as an antioxidant and has been suggested to counteract the toxicity of As. We report here on total intake of As and Se in a Bangladeshi population, based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) analysis of a range of Bangladeshi foods. The total daily intake of As and Se from foods was estimated…to be 74.2 and 87.7 µg/day, respectively. If As from water, used for drinking and cooking rice, is included the TDI increases to 385 µg of total As per day. An important finding of our study, contrary to suggestions given in other reports, is that the Bangladeshi diet does not appear to be deficient in Se and this may explain why the blood Se concentrations in Bangladeshis is similar to the USA population. This requires further investigation and detailed dietary and human biomonitoring studies on the Bangladeshi population should be conducted. Rice and fish were the main sources of dietary As and Se for Bangladeshis. Leafy vegetables could also be a significant contributor of high concentration of As in the Bangladeshi diet. The flesh and eggs of Hilsha (Tenualosa ilisha ) species of fish were found to contain particularly high levels of total arsenic (range 0.77–6.15 mg/kg) although this is likely to be dominated by the non-toxic organoarsenic species.
Keywords: Arsenic, selenium, diet, ICP-MS, total dietary intake, Bangladesh