The majority of jobs available to personnel entering the U.S. military services are physically demanding. Soldiers must maintain high levels of physical fitness to optimally perform their duties. High fitness levels are of particular importance to women in the military. Only strong, physically competent women will be fully successful in performing the physically demanding tasks of many occupational specialties. This paper describes the research that has been conducted to compare the physical fitness, physical training, and occupational performance of women and men in the U.S. Army.