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The top 100 cited neurorehabilitation papers

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neurorehabilitation covers a large range of disorders, assessment approaches and treatment methods. There have been previous citation analyses of rehabilitation and of its subfields. However, there has never been a comprehensive citation analysis in neurorehabilitation.

OBJECTIVE: The present study reports findings from a citation analysis of the top 100 most cited neurorehabilitation papers to describe the research trends in the field.

METHODS: A de-novo keyword search of papers indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection database yielded 52,581 papers. A candidate pool of the 200 most-cited papers published between 2005 and 2016 was reviewed by the clinician authors. The papers in the top 100 deemed to be irrelevant were discarded and replaced by the most highly-cited articles in the second tier deemed to be clinically relevant.

RESULTS: The most frequently cited neurorehablitation papers appeared in Stroke, Movement Disorders, and Neurology. Papers tended to focus on treatments, especially for stroke. Authorship trends suggest that top cited papers result from group endeavors, with 90% of the papers involving a collaboration among 3 or more authors.

CONCLUSION: Treatment studies, often focused on stroke, appear to have the highest impact in the field of neurorehabilitation.

1Introduction

The number of citations a manuscript receives is often considered a measure of impact and merit. Citation analyses, or the systematic study of patterns in publications, have been used to evaluate scientific activity for many decades (Narin, 1976) and have proliferated in biomedicine in recent years (King, Tam, Fasano, & Lozano, 2016; Sorenson & Weedon, 2011). These analyses are effective for describing the trends in scholarship in a particular area of study.

As a multidisciplinary field, rehabilitation encompasses diverse clinical and research settings. Consequently, results from citation analyses in rehabilitation can be particularly difficult to synthesize, even in the most common areas of practice (Shadgan, Roig, HajGhanbari, & Reid, 2010). Instead, the approach has been to focus on specific subfields in rehabilitation. For instance, the first citation analysis in rehabilitation was an examination of research in physical therapy (Michels, 1982). Subsequent published works have similarly focused on the physical therapy literature (Bohannon & Gibson, 1986; Roberts, 1992; Wakiji, 1997), identifying the core journals in physical therapy (Bohannon & Roberts, 2009), and assessing the relative ranking of a specific rehabilitation journal (Kuhlemeier, 1992).

There has been only one published review of the top cited articles in the broader field of rehabilitation (Shadgan et al., 2010). Findings from this analysis focused on manuscripts published between 1959 and 2002 identified neurorehabilitation as the most common field of study in rehabilitation, accounting for 41% of published papers. There has not, however, been a recent analysis of the growing neurorehabilitation research literature to assess, in a comprehensive manner, the trends in this area. The present manuscript aims to characterize the published literature in neurorehabilitation over the last decade to identify the most frequently cited papers, the journals in which they were published, and the number of authors of these works. This review also provides guidance for future neurorehabilitation research and highlights where there are deficiencies in the current literature.

2Methods

The data used in the tabulation of each article’s citations originate from the Web of Science Core Collection database, which includes, but is not limited to all papers indexed by the NIH’s MEDLINE® database. To start, a de-novo keyword search strategy was developed and applied (see Appendix A). The search strategy yielded 52,581 published papers in 2,781 journals. Manuscripts in 23 languages other than English were excluded. Next, two selection filters were used to determine which papers would be evaluated in the analysis. The first filter applied was temporal. Only papers published and subsequently indexed in Web of Science Core Collection between January 1, 2005 and April 18, 2016 were considered. As shown in Fig. 1, the authors focused on the past decade, characterized by substantial and increasing productivity.

The second filter applied to the search was relevance to neurorehabilitation. A candidate pool of the top 200 most cited was identified. From the top 100, papers irrelevant to neurorehabilitation were excluded and replaced by the most highly-cited articles in the second tier deemed to be clinically relevant. Relevance to rehabilitation was judged by consensus decisions of the clinician authors NZ, JSK and MO.

After compiling the 100 published papers with the most citations, papers were categorized by content. The type of article (e.g., review or evaluation, treatment study), clinical diagnosis of focus (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, stroke), and symptom type (e.g., aphasia, cognitive impairment) were determined by consensus between the clinician authors. These categories were not mutually exclusive, such that one paper could be classified into more than one category (i.e., review paper and stroke).

3Results

The top 100 most cited papers are presented in Table 1.

3.1Journals of top 100 neurorehabilitation papers

To identify journals that were the greatest source of scientific information on neurorehabilitation, a list of the journals in which the most neurorehabilitation articles were published was compiled (see Table 2). With more than one thousand relevant articles published, the journals, Stroke, Movement Disorders, Neurology, Epilepsia, European Journal of Neurology, and International Journal of Stroke were most often a source for neurorehabilitation content.

3.2Most common focus of neurorehabilitation papers

Among the 100 most cited papers in neurorehabilitation, treatment studies emerged as the most common type of article (38% of the papers). Treatments evaluated in these papers included devices for stroke patients, basic studies using animal models, and surgical interventions for neurological conditions. With the exception of a few papers (4%), all treatment studies cited involved human subjects. There was a significant minority of published papers (9%) testing the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as an intervention for various neurological conditions such as stroke and spinal cord injury.

As would be expected, a number of the most frequently cited papers had to do with approaches to neurorehabilitation. Nine percent of the top 100 papers dealt with advanced treatment guidelines from key governing bodies within the field including the American Heart Association. Another 16% of the papers describe assessment tools for measuring critical outcomes in neurorehabilitation including psychological functioning and cognitive impairment. The relevance of these two outcomes in the literature over the past 10 years is further reflected in the findings that 14% of the top 100 most cited papers focused on psychological symptoms, most frequently depression and anxiety, while another 5% covered cognitive functioning. Another indicator of consensus, review papers, which summarize accumulated evidence on specific areas within neurorehabilitation, also made up 16% of the most frequently cited works.

A look at the most frequently studied disease state among the top 100 cited published papers shed some light on the disease attributes that shape research in this area of the rehabilitation. Stroke was the most commonly studied neurological condition, appearing in 39% of the top 100 cited papers. The high number may speak to the high prevalence of stroke and its widespread global impact. It may also be related to the great potential for rehab gains in cerebrovascular disease. In contrast, Huntington’s disease is a rare and terminal condition, making up only 1% of the top 100 papers. After stroke, the next conditions are considerably less common in the reviewed literature, ranging from 10–12% compared to a 39% for stroke. These conditions included degenerative (Parkinsons’s Disease—11%; Alzheimers/dementia—10%) and other chronic diseases (TBI—11%; epilepsy—12%). Multiple sclerosis, a neurodegenerative disease, accounted for only 4% of the top 100 cited papers. Notably, although spinal cord injury can often co-occur with brain injury, the former appeared in only 6% of the top 100 most cited papers in neurorehabilitation, compared to 11% for TBI.

As with other disorders that compromise functioning, caregivers play a central role in caring for individuals with neurological conditions. This was captured in the 4% of the top 100 papers that focused on caregivers. Most of these papers (75%) focused on the caregivers of individuals with dementia.

3.3Number of authors of top 100 neurorehabilitation papers

Authorship patterns for each paper were examined. The number of authors ranged from a low of 1 (2%) to a high of 44 (1%). One quarter of the papers (25%) had 4 authors or less. Nearly half (46%) of the papers had between 5 and 10 authors. Nearly one quarter (23%) had between 11 and 20 authors. Six percent had between 21 and 44 authors.

4Discussion

Neurorehabilitation is the most common field of study in rehabilitation (Shadgan et al., 2010), yet there have been no citation analyses of neurorehabilitation papers to describe the research trends. The most recent comprehensive citation analysis in the broader rehabilitation field was published over five years ago and only included papers through 2002. The present study updates findings from the 2010 publication by focusing on neurorehabilitation papers appearing in print between 2005 and 2015.

First, findings from this citation analysis of the top 100 most cited neurorehabilitation papers show that over the last decade, the field has been dominated by the study of stroke. Shadagan et al. (2010) similarly found from analyzing rehabilitation papers published more than a decade earlier that 41% of neurorehabilitation articles were on stroke and spinal cord rehabilitation. Very likely, substantial resources in neurorehabilitation have been dedicated to the study of stroke because stroke continues to be the leading cause of adult acquired disability in the United States and worldwide (Brenner, Burke, & Skolarus, 2016).

Second, much of the scientific inquiry in neurorehabilitation has been focused on advancing treatments for neurological disorders. Neurorehabilitation in its most fundamental sense is aimed at improving functioning for individuals affected by neurological disorders. For example, this represents a contrast with the related fields of essential tremor and dystonia, where much of the work up till 2015 has been focused on describing the pathophysiology of the conditions (King et al., 2016).

Included among the dozen most often cited journals were Stroke, Movement Disorders, Neurology, Epilepsia, European Journal of Neurology, International Journal of Stroke, Brain Injury, and Journal of Neurotrauma. Seven of the top 30 journals found in the 2010 citation analysis continue to produce frequently cited manuscripts according to these more recent results.

Lastly, as in all of biomedical literature, the authorship trends show that collaboration continues to be common in top cited manuscripts in neurorehabilitation. Shadagan and colleagues (2010) found that only 7% of the most cited papers were written by a single author, the current findings show an even smaller proportion—2%.

Given the high incidence of neurotrauma and neurological disorders, the field of neurorehabilitation remains an important research area. Increased research productivity is clearly indicated on numerous fronts given the often complex, and long-term needs of this patient population and the dearth of adequate literature in many areas of this subspecialty area of rehabilitation.

Conflict of interest

None.

Acknowledgments

The contents of this manuscript were developed under grants from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR grant numbers 90DP0033 and 90AR5025). NIDILRR is a Center within the Administration for Community Living (ACL), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The contents of this manuscript do not necessarily represent the policy of NIDILRR, ACL, HHS, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

Appendices

Appendix A

TI = neurorehabil* OR ((TI = PTSD OR TI = “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder” OR TI = “disturbed sleep” OR TI = “sleep disruption” OR TI = “functional electrical stimulation” OR TI = evaluat* OR TI = “sleep problems” OR TI = carer* OR TI = nurse* OR TI = nursing OR TI = “quality of life” OR TI = gait* OR TI = employment OR TI = outcome* OR TI = “family intervention” OR TI = “return to work” OR TI = “neurobehavioral disability” OR TI = “family needs” OR TI = “community integration” OR TI = “Community Reintegration” OR TI = “Driver’s Rehabilitation” OR TI = “Life expectancy” OR TI = “Postural imbalance” OR TI = “Suicid*” OR TI = Aggression OR TI = agitation OR TI = depress* OR TI = rehabil* OR TI = restor* OR TI = improve* OR TI = assess* OR TI = “Social Support” OR TI = “Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation” OR TI = tDCS OR TI = “Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation” OR TI = TMS OR TI = “Virtual Reality” OR TI = Psychoeducation OR TI = Psychopathology OR TI = Psychotherapy OR TI = “Resistance Training” OR TI = “Response Bias” OR TI = “Robot Assisted Therapy” OR TI = “Gait Training” OR TI = “Secondary Gain” OR TI = “Self Management” OR TI = “Outcome Assessment” OR TI = “Physical Therapy” OR TI = “Physiotherapy” OR TI = “Motor Learning” OR TI = “Motor Performance” OR TI = “Motor Recovery” OR TI = “Assisted Living” OR TI = “Assistive Technology” OR TI = “Avocational Rehabilitation” OR TI = Caregiver* OR TI = “Independent living” OR TI = “Group Therapy” OR TI = “Family Intervention” OR TI = “Family Therapy” OR TI = “Functional assessment*” OR TI = “Behavior Therapy” OR TI = “Effortless learning”) AND (TI = stroke OR TI = paralys* OR TI = paralyz* OR TI = hemorrhage OR TI = haemorrhage OR TI = “Multiple sclerosis” OR TI = Alzheimer* OR TI = Parkinson* OR TI = Huntington* OR TI = dystonia OR TI = “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” OR TI = “motor neuron disease” OR TI = “motor neurone disease” OR TI = ALS OR TI = “motor deficit*” OR TI = neurodegenerat* OR TI = dementia OR TI = neurodegenerat* OR TI = neuropathy OR TI = paraplegi* OR TI = hemisect* OR TI = “axon damage” OR TI = “axonal damage” OR TI = “damaged axon*” OR TI = “axon injur*” OR TI = “injured axon*” OR TI = “axon lesion*” OR TI = “axonal lesion*” OR TI = “brain damage” OR TI = “damaged brain” OR TI = “brain injur*” OR TI = “injured brain” OR TI = “brain lesion*” OR TI = “CNS injur*” OR TI = “CNS damage” OR TI = “CNS trauma” OR TI = “CNS lesion*” OR TI = “head trauma” OR TI = “head injur*” OR TI = “nerve damage” OR TI = “nerve injur*” OR TI = “damaged nerve*” OR TI = “nerve lesion*” OR TI = “injured nerve*” OR TI = “nervous system injur*” OR TI = “nervous system disease*” OR TI = “nervous system damage” OR TI = “nervous system lesion*” OR TI = “damaged nervous system” OR TI = “injured nervous system” OR TI = “neural disease*” OR TI = “neural injur*” OR TI = “neural damage” OR TI = “neural lesion*” OR TI = “spinal cord injur*” OR TI = “injured spinal cord” OR TI = “spinal cord damage” OR TI = “spinal cord transect*” OR TI = “transected spinal cord” OR TI = “damaged spinal cord” OR TI = “spinal cord lesion*” OR TI = dystrophy OR TI = myasthenia OR TI = Spasticity OR TI = “Subdural hematoma” OR TI = “Subdural haematoma” OR TI = “Substance Abuse” OR TI = Tetraplegi* OR TI = “Vegetative State” OR TI = Vertigo OR TI = anoxi* OR TI = Polytrauma OR TI = “Post-concussive Disorder” OR TI = “Post-Polio Myelitis” OR TI = “Neuro-endocrine disorder” OR TI = “Neurogenic bladder” OR TI = “Neurogenic bowel” OR TI = Neuropathy OR TI = “Motor Impairment” OR TI = “Adjustment Disorder” OR TI = Agnosia OR TI = “Akinetic mutism” OR TI = Amnesia OR TI = Aphasia OR TI = Apraxia OR TI = “Axonal Pathology” OR TI = “Brain Trauma” OR TI = “Cerebral Palsy” OR TI = “Ischemic Infarct” OR TI = “Minimally Conscious State” OR TI = “Intellectual Disability” OR TI = Hemianopia OR TI = Hemiparesis OR TI = Hydrocephalus OR TI = Dysphagia OR TI = Dysphasia OR TI = Dysphonia OR TI = Dysphoria OR TI = “Epidural Hematoma” OR TI = Epilepsy OR TI = Coma OR TI = “Complex regional pain syndrome” OR TI = concussion OR TI = iplopia OR TI = “Cerebrovascular Disease” OR TI = “Cognitive Impairment” OR TI = “Post-Traumatic vestibulopathy” OR TI = “Anxiety disorder*” OR TI = “vestibular disorder*” OR TI = “vestibular dysfunct*” OR TI = “encephalit*” OR TI = “TBI”)).

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Figures and Tables

Fig.1

Number of neurorehabilitation articles published annually since 2005.

Number of neurorehabilitation articles published annually since 2005.
Table 1

Most-cited papers in neurorehabilitation between January 1, 2005 and April 18, 2016

RankYearAuthorsTitleJournalTotal Citations
12005Nasreddine, ZS; Phillips, NA; Bedirian, V; et al.The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairmentJournal of the American Geriatrics Society1,905
22006Spitzer, RL; Kroenke, K; Williams, JBW; et al.A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder – The GAD-7Archives of Internal Medicine1,196
32005SantaCruz, K; Lewis, J; Spires, T; et al.Tau suppression in a neurodegenerative mouse model improves memory functionScience795
42010Lees, KR; Bluhmki, E; von Kummer, R; et al.Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trialsLancet746
52005Keirstead, HS; Nistor, G; Bernal, G; et al.Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transplants remyelinate and restore locomotion after spinal cord injuryJournal of Neuroscience629
62006Albers, GW; Thijs, VN; Wechsle, L; et al.Magnetic resonance imaging profiles predict clinical response to early reperfusion: The diffusion and perfusion imaging evaluation for understanding stroke evolution (DEFUSE) studyAnnals of Neurology625
72007Rha, JH; Saver, JLThe impact of recanalization on ischemic stroke outcome – A meta-analysisStroke623
82008Avants, BB; Epstein, CL; Grossman, M; et al.Symmetric diffeomorphic image registration with cross-correlation: Evaluating automated labeling of elderly and neurodegenerative brainMedical Image Analysis583
92008Davis, SM; Donnan, GA; Parsons, MW; et al.Effects of alteplase beyond 3 h after stroke in the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET): a placebo-controlled randomised trialLancet Neurology514
102012Saver, JL; Jahan, R; Levy, EI; et al.Solitaire flow restoration device versus the Merci Retriever in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (SWIFT): a randomised, parallel-group, non-inferiority trialLancet499
112009Easton, JD; Saver, JL; Albers, GW; et al.Definition and Evaluation of Transient Ischemic Attack. A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this statement as an educational tool for neurologistsStroke487
122007Broderick, J; Connolly, S; Feldmann, E; et al.Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral Hemorrhage in adults – 2007 updateStroke437
132005Hackett, ML; Yapa, C; Parag, V; et al.Frequency of depression after stroke – A systematic review of observational studiesStroke423
142008Kwakkel, G; Kollen, BJ; Krebs, HIEffects of robot-assisted therapy on upper limb recovery after stroke: A systematic reviewNeurorehabilitation and Neural Repair413
152006Ownby, RL; Crocco, E; Acevedo, A; et al.Depression and risk for Alzheimer disease – Systematic review, meta-analysis, and metaregression analysisArchives of General Psychiatry410
162005Swaab, DF; Bao, AM; Lucassen, PJThe stress system in the human brain in depression and neurodegenerationAgeing Research Reviews402
172007Chalela, JA; Kidwell, CS; Nentwich, LM; et al.Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparisonLancet383
182005Remy, P; Doder, M; Lees, A; et al.Depression in Parkinson’s disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic systemBrain375
192005Harper, SQ; Staber, PD; He, XH; et al.RNA interference improves motor and neuropathological abnormalities in a Huntington’s disease mouse modelProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America354
202009Langhorne, P; Coupar, F; Pollock, AMotor recovery after stroke: a systematic reviewLancet Neurology351
212005Tellez-Zenteno, JF; Dhar, R; Wiebe, SLong-term seizure outcomes following epilepsy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysisBrain342
222015Goyal, M; Demchuk, AM; Menon, BK; et al.Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic StrokeNew England Journal of Medicine323
222008Adlard, PA; Cherny, RA; Finkelstein, DI; et al.Rapid restoration of cognition in Alzheimer’s transgenic mice with 8-hydroxy quinoline analogs is associated with decreased interstitial A betaNeuron323
242006Krakauer, JWMotor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitationCurrent Opinion in Neurology321
242010van Asch, CJJ; Luitse, MJA; Rinkel, GE; et al.Incidence, case fatality, and functional outcome of intracerebral haemorrhage overtime, according to age, sex, and ethnic origin: a systematic review and meta-analysisLancet Neurology321
262007Schiff, ND; Giacino, JT; Kalmar, K; et al.Behavioural improvements with thalamic stimulation after severe traumatic brain injuryNature320
272006Kauvar, DS; Lefering, R; Wade, CEImpact of hemorrhage on trauma outcome: an overview of epidemiology, clinical presentations, and therapeutic considerationsJournal of Trauma-Injury Infection and Critical Care309
282006Hummel, FC; Cohen, LGNon-invasive brain stimulation: a new strategy to improve neurorehabilitation after stroke?Lancet Neurology305
292007Nieuwboer, A; Kwakkel, G; Rochester, L; et al.Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson’s disease: the RESCUE trialJournal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry299
302009Blurton-Jones, M; Kitazawa, M; Martinez-Coria, H; et al.Neural stem cells improve cognition via BDNF in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s diseaseProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States Of America296
312013Titulaer, MJ; McCracken, L; Gabilondo, I; et al.Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an observational cohort studyLancet Neurology295
322010Lo, AC; Guarino, PD; Richards, LG; et al.Robot-Assisted Therapy for Long-Term Upper-Limb Impairment after StrokeNew England Journal of Medicine290
322009Barone, P; Antonini, A; Colosimo, C; et al.The Priamo Study: a Multicenter Assessment of Nonmotor Symptoms and Their Impact on Quality of Life in Parkinson’s DiseaseMovement Disorders290
342007Banks, JL; Marotta, CAOutcomes validity and reliability of the modified Rankin scale: implications for stroke clinical trials – A literature review and synthesisStroke288
352005Duncan, PW; Zorowitz, R; Bates, B; et al.Management of adult stroke rehabilitation care – A clinical practice guidelineStroke280
352005Flansbjer, UB; Holmback, AM; Downham, D; et al.Reliability of gait performance tests in men and women with hemiparesis after strokeJournal of Rehabilitation Medicine280
372009Schnakers, C; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Giacino, J; et al.Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessmentBMC Neurology278
382005Marini, C; De Santis, F; Sacco, S; et al.Contribution of atrial fibrillation to incidence and outcome of ischemic stroke – Results from a population-based studyStroke276
392008Reijnders, JSAM; Ehrt, U; Weber, WEJ; et al.A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson’s diseaseMovement Disorders274
392005Naeser, MA; Martin, PI; Nicholas, M; et al.Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca’s area: An open-protocol studyBrain and Language274
412005Fregni, F; Boggio, PS; Mansur, CG; et al.Transcranial direct current stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patientsNeuroreport269
422005Takeuchi, N; Chuma, T; Matsuo, Y; et al.Repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation of contralesional primary motor cortex improves hand function after strokeStroke263
422007Birbaumer, N; Cohen, LGBrain-computer interfaces: communication and restoration of movement in paralysisJournal of Physiology-London263
442006Bourke, SC; Tomlinson, M; Williams, TL; et al.Effects of non-invasive ventilation on survival and quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosisLancet Neurology261
452006Zandbergen, EGJ; Hijdra, A; Koelman, JHTM; et al.Prediction of poor outcome within the first 3 days of postanoxic comaNeurology257
462005Slevin, JT; Gerhardt, GA; Smith, CD; et al.Improvement of bilateral motor functions in patients with Parkinson disease through the unilateral intraputaminal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factorJournal of Neurosurgery256
472006Fregni, F; Boggio, PS; Lima, MC; et al.A sham-controlled, phase II trial of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of central pain in traumatic spinal cord injuryPain254
482005Edwards, P; Arango, M; Balica, L; et al.Final results of MRC CRASH, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of intravenous corticosteroid in adults with head injury – outcomes at 6 monthsLancet253
492005Belanger, HG; Curtiss, G; Demery, JA; et al.Factors moderating neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysisJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society252
502006Aarabi, B; Hesdorffer, DC; Ahn, ES; et al.Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant swelling due to severe head injuryJournal of Neurosurgery250
512005Geurts, JJG; Pouwels, PJW; Uitdehaag, BMJ; et al.Intracortical lesions in multiple sclerosis: improved detection with 3D double inversion-recovery MR imagingRadiology249
512008Steyerberg, EW; Mushkudiani, N; Perel, P; et al.Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: Development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristicsPLoS Medicine249
532008Perel, P; Arango, M; Clayton, T; et al.Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: practical prognostic models based on large cohort of international patientsBritish Medical Journal248
542007Schrag, A; Barone, P; Brown, RG; et al.Depression rating scales in Parkinson’s disease: Critique and recommendationsMovement Disorders247
542006Belle, SH; Burgio, L; Burns, R; et al.Enhancing the quality of life of dementia caregivers from different ethnic or racial groups - A randomized, controlled trialAnnals of Internal Medicine247
542005Thompson, HJ; Lifshitz, J; Marklund, N; et al.Lateral fluid percussion brain injury: a 15-year review and evaluationJournal of Neurotrauma247
572007Kennedy, J; Hill, MD; Ryckborst, KJ; et al.Fast assessment of stroke and transient ischaemic attack to prevent early recurrence (FASTER): a randomised controlled pilot trialLancet Neurology246
582007Guskiewicz, KM; Marshall, SW; Bailes, J; et al.Recurrent concussion and risk of depression in retired professional football playersMedicine and Science in Sports And Exercise244
592008Reeves, MJ; Bushnell, CD; Howard, G; et al.Sex differences in stroke: epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomesLancet Neurology241
602008Spencer, S; Huh, LOutcomes of epilepsy surgery in adults and childrenLancet Neurology239
612011Langhorne, P; Bernhardt, J; Kwakkel, GStroke Care 2 Stroke rehabilitationLancet238
612007Garcia-Alloza, M; Borrelli, LA; Rozkalne, A; et al.Curcumin labels amyloid pathology in vivo, disrupts existing plaques, and partially restores distorted neurites in an Alzheimer mouse modelJournal of Neurochemistry238
632006Moser, DK; Alberts, MJ; Kimble, LP; et al.Reducing delay in seeking treatment by patients with acute coronary syndrome and stroke - A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Stroke CouncilCirculation236
642005Yogev, G; Giladi, N; Peretz, C; et al.Dual tasking, gait rhythmicity, and Parkinson’s disease: Which aspects of gait are attention demanding?European Journal of Neuroscience234
652009Khatri, P; Abruzzo, T; Yeatts, SD; et al.Good clinical outcome after ischemic stroke with successful revascularization is time-dependentNeurology231
662006Fregni, F; Boggio, PS; Valle, AC; et al.A sham-controlled trial of a 5-day course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patientsStroke229
662008Bao, AM; Meynen, G; Swaab, DFThe stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: Focus on the human hypothalamusBrain Research Reviews229
682005Khedr, EM; Ahmed, MA; Fathy, N; et al.Therapeutic trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation after acute ischemic strokeNeurology228
692006Jicha, GA; Parisi, JE; Dickson, DW; et al.Neuropathologic outcome of mild cognitive impairment following progression to clinical dementiaArchives of Neurology226
702005Brambilla, R; Bracchi-Ricard, V; Hu, WH; et al.Inhibition of astroglial nuclear factor kappa B reduces inflammation and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injuryJournal of Experimental Medicine225
712011Chollet, F; Tardy, J; Albucher, JF; et al.Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trialLancet Neurology222
712006Benedict, RHB; Cookfair, D; Gavett, R; et al.Validity of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACHMS)Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society222
732010Tsuji, O; Miura, K; Okada, Y; et al.Therapeutic potential of appropriately evaluated safe-induced pluripotent stem cells for spinal cord injuryProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America218
742005Siegert, RJ; Abernethy, DADepression in multiple sclerosis: a reviewJournal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry217
752006Pinquart, M; Sorensen, SHelping caregivers of persons with dementia: which interventions work and how large are their effects?International Psychogeriatrics216
752006Mittelman, MS; Haley, WE; Clay, OJ; et al.Improving caregiver well-being delays nursing home placement of patients with Alzheimer diseaseNeurology216
752009Schwamm, LH; Fonarow, GC; Reeves, MJ; et al.Get With the Guidelines-Stroke Is Associated With Sustained Improvement in Care for Patients Hospitalized with Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic AttackCirculation216
782007Boggio, PS; Nunes, A; Rigonatti, SP; et al.Repeated sessions of noninvasive brain DC stimulation is associated with motor function improvement in stroke patientsRestorative Neurology and Neuroscience215
782007Rolland, Y; Pillard, F; Klapouszczak, A; et al.Exercise program for nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s disease: A 1-year randomized, controlled trialJournal of the American Geriatrics Society215
802005Hackett, ML; Anderson, CSPredictors of depression after stroke – A systematic review of observational studiesStroke212
812006Dyet, LE; Kennea, N; Counsell, SJ; et al.Natural history of brain lesions in extremely preterm infants studied with serial magnetic resonance imaging from birth and neurodevelopmental assessmentPediatrics211
822005Macko, RF; Ivey, FM; Forrester, LW; et al.Treadmill exercise rehabilitation improves ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke – A randomized, controlled trialStroke210
822005Garshick, E; Kelley, A; Cohen, S; et al.A prospective assessment of mortality in chronic spinal cord injurySpinal Cord210
842006Barnes, DE; Alexopoulos, GS; Lopez, OL; et al.Depressive symptoms, vascular disease, and mild cognitive impairment – Findings from the cardiovascular health studyArchives of General Psychiatry208
852007Steeves, JD; Lammertse, D; Curt, A; et al.Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI) as developed by the ICCP panel: clinical trial outcome measuresSpinal Cord207
852012Friberg, L; Rosenqvist, M; Lip, GYHEvaluation of risk stratification schemes for ischaemic stroke and bleeding in 182 678 patients with atrial fibrillation: the Swedish Atrial Fibrillation cohort studyEuropean Heart Journal207
852008Kuhn, AA; Kempf, F; Brucke, C; et al.High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus suppresses oscillatory beta activity in patients with Parkinson’s disease in parallel with improvement in motor performanceJournal of Neuroscience207
882008Sidaros, A; Engberg, A; Sidaros, K; et al.Diffusion tensor imaging during recovery from severe traumatic brain injury and relation to clinical outcome: a longitudinal studyBrain206
892006Wartenberg, KE; Schmidt, JM; Claassen, J; et al.Impact of medical complications on outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhageCritical Care Medicine203
902005Dobkin, BHRehabilitation after strokeNew England Journal of Medicine202
912006Kuhn, AA; Kupsch, A; Schneider, GH; et al.Reduction in subthalamic 8–35 Hz oscillatory activity correlates with clinical improvement in Parkinson’s diseaseEuropean Journal of Neuroscience201
922006Kim, YH; You, SH; Ko, MH; et al.Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced corticomotor excitability and associated motor skill acquisition in chronic strokeStroke199
922006Boggio, PS; Ferrucci, R; Rigonatti, SP; et al.Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory in patients with Parkinson’s diseaseJournal of the Neurological Sciences199
942008Etters, L; Goodall, D; Harrison, BECaregiver burden among dementia patient caregivers: a review of the literatureJournal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners198
952005Raina, P; O’Donnell, M; Rosenbaum, P; et al.The health and well-being of caregivers of children with cerebral palsyPediatrics197
952006Yang, QH; Botto, LD; Erickson, JD; et al.Improvement in stroke mortality in Canada and the United States, 1990 to 2002Circulation197
952008Xiao, GM; Wei, J; Yan, WQ; et al.Improved outcomes from the administration of progesterone for patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trialCritical Care197
982005Benedict, RHB; Wahlig, E; Bakshi, R; et al.Predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis: accounting for physical disability, fatigue, cognition, mood disorder, personality, and behavior changeJournal of the Neurological Sciences196
982008Wahlgren, N; Ahmed, N; Eriksson, N; et al.Multivariable Analysis of Outcome Predictors and Adjustment of Main Outcome Results to Baseline Data Profile in Randomized Controlled Trials Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy (SITS-MOST)Stroke196
982006Miyasaki, JM; Shannon, K; Voon, V; et al.Practice Parameter: evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review) Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of NeurologyNeurology196
Table 2

Article counts of top 50 journals in which the most neurorehabilitation articles were published

#JournalArticle Count
1Stroke2360
2Movement Disorders2181
3Neurology1732
4Epilepsia1552
5European Journal of Neurology1130
6International Journal of Stroke1119
7Brain Injury954
8Journal of Neurotrauma876
9Multiple Sclerosis Journal831
10Journal of Neurology823
11Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation733
12Cerebrovascular Diseases624
13International Psychogeriatrics594
14Journal of the Neurological Sciences549
15PLoS One519
16Epilepsy & Behavior487
17Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry473
18Multiple Sclerosis450
19Disability and Rehabilitation412
20Annals of Neurology397
21Journal of the American Geriatrics Society392
22International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry345
23Spinal Cord340
24Parkinsonism & Related Disorders339
25Value in Health334
26Neurosurgery333
27Journal of Neurosurgery287
28Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine283
29American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry282
30Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology282
31Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair280
32Clinical Rehabilitation275
33Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases265
34Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation259
35Gait & Posture242
36European Psychiatry234
37Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation216
38NeuroRehabilitation209
39Journal of Physical Therapy Science208
40BMC Neurology196
41Clinical Neuropsychologist196
42Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology193
43Journal of Alzheimers Disease187
44Critical Care Medicine184
45Circulation179
46Neuromuscular Disorders179
47Quality of Life Research179
48Aging & Mental Health175
49American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation175
50Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders174