Traumatic brain injury (TBI), according to the World Health Organization, will surpass many diseases as the major cause of death and disability by the year 2020. With an estimated 10 million people affected annually by TBI, the burden of mortality and morbidity that this condition imposes on society, makes TBI a pressing public health and medical problem. The burden of TBI is manifest throughout the world, and is especially prominent in Low and Middle Income Countries which face a higher preponderance of risk factors for causes of TBI and have inadequately prepared health systems to address the associated health outcomes. Latin America and Sub Saharan Africa demonstrate a higher TBI-related incidence rate varying from 150–170 per 100,000 respectively due to RTIs compared to a global rate of 106 per 100,000. As highlighted in this global review of TBI, there is a large gap in data on incidence, risk factors, sequelae, financial costs, and social impact of TBI. This should be addressed through planning of comprehensive TBI prevention programs in LMICs through well-established surveillance systems. Greater resources for research and prioritized interventions are critical to promote evidence-based policy for TBI.