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# When ordinary becomes extraordinary: A postschool follow up study of the integrated vocational functioning of 50 workers with significant intellectual disabilities, 1984-2020

### OBJECTIVE:

The primary purpose is to share information about 50 individuals with significant intellectual disabilities, the lowest intellectually functioning 1% of those who exited schools, from 1981 to 2003.

### RESULTS:

The 47 who attended the Madison Metropolitan School District (MMSD) received instruction in integrated nonschool work and related environments as part of their school experiences. After exiting school, the 50 functioned in integrated work settings for over 36 years. Information pertaining to the work environments in which they functioned, the work tasks performed, the reasons for changes in environments and tasks, the hours worked per week, the wages earned, the travel modes used, the lunch supports provided, the extra supports provided by Job Coaches, involvement in Community and Recreation activities and where each resided is presented. Social relationships with coworkers and others without disabilities, the mortality of the 50 workers and their parents and guardianship are also addressed.

### CONCLUSION:

The authors are not aware of any other postschool follow up study of so many workers with significant intellectual disabilities who functioned in integrated work settings for such long periods of time.

## 1Introduction

In the early 1970’s the MMSD adopted a “Zero Exclusion” policy which opened its doors to all children with significant intellectual disabilities. Almost all were served in a segregated school. As time passed some of those directly involved contemplated the nature and meaning of the educational and related services they were providing. Are we doing the right things? What happens when school ends? Can we help our students live better lives than those who preceded them? (Brown, Nietupski & Nietupski, 1976). These and related questions led to the gathering of information about the postschool realities being experienced by adults of similar kinds and degrees of disabilities in Madison. The postschool lives of such persons consisted of staying in residences all day, being confined to a segregated workshop or activity centers, being on a waiting list for services and interacting only with family members, others with disabilities and persons paid to be with them. A few judged these segregated, nonproductive, isolated and otherwise limiting school outcomes unacceptable. They dreamed of postschool lives that were richer, more varied, safer, more interesting, challenging, respected and otherwise “more ordinary.” Tangibly, more ordinary meant increasing: the number of environments in which the students would function in postschool life; the quantity and complexity of respected chronological age appropriate and functional skills they were given opportunities to learn and perform; the number of persons with and without disabilities with whom they interacted and developed social relationships; and the meaningful choices they could make about where they went, what they did and with whom they associated.

Some parents and professionals realized that when instruction was confined to the physical property of schools, too many important and learnable skills simply could not be acquired; the performance criteria used to define learning were inappropriate, counterproductive or even harmful if manifested in integrated nonschool settings; generalization difficulties disallowed the students from performing them appropriately in context in nonschool environments; and, even the best teachers and therapists ran out of good ideas quickly. Thus, it was arranged that a few would receive authentic vocational assessment and instruction during school days and times (Brown, Nisbet, et al., 1983).

Authentic vocational assessment refers to arranging for an individual to function in real integrated work and related environments and activities and then determining meaningful discrepancies between the repertoire of that individual and the minimally acceptable requirements of acceptable functioning therein. Authentic vocational instruction refers to teaching an individual that which is actually needed to meet the minimally acceptable performance standards of that real work environment. When first proposed, all but a few considered authentic assessment and instruction as radical, extreme, dangerous, impractical, too costly, developmentally absurd and creating false hopes. Those who argued for the status quo emphatically offered the following. “They will not be safe downtown. They should be with their own kind. You know how terribly she acts in the restroom at school; imagine if we take her to a public restroom. She always runs away. If we take her into the community, she will probably run under a bus. He is always touching others. That will not be tolerated.” However, once the students demonstrated they could learn to function safely and efficiently in a variety of integrated settings, parents and teachers quickly realized that much more time should be devoted to generating the wonderful array of important skills that could only or best be acquired from direct instruction therein.

After a few years, stories of success spread and more teachers realized they could also teach meaningful skills, increase the number of environments in which their students functioned and develop constructive social relationships with individuals without disabilities. As more teachers participated, more students were given opportunities and more parents wanted integrated nonschool instruction for their children.1

In the early 1980’s students who received direct instruction in integrated work and related settings as part of their curricula approached school exit. Their parents, teachers and others were extremely frustrated, disappointed and angry about the limited post school options. Several worked collaboratively with Dane County, WI professional and elected officials to bypass the sheltered workshops, activity centers and waiting lists by assigning public funds to agencies that would support the students in the integrated work settings in which they were functioning at school exit.

This is a report of 50 workers who exited school from 1981 to 2003 and who functioned in integrated work settings from 1981 to 2020. Specifically, information is presented pertaining to the work environments utilized, the work tasks performed, the major reasons for changes in environments and tasks, the hours worked per week, the wages earned, the travel modes used to get to and from work, the extra supports provided by Job Coaches, involvement in Community and Recreation activities during work days and times and where each resided. Social relationships with coworkers without disabilities, the mortality of the 50 workers and their parents and guardianship are also addressed.

Certainly, selected individuals with significant intellectual disabilities have functioned in integrated work settings for centuries and many do today. (Blackorby & Wagner, 1996; Certo et al., 1997, 2002; Horvath, Rose & Stapleton, 2003; Luecking & Certo, 2003; Murphy & Rogan, 1995; PCESE, 2002; PCID, 2004; Wehman & Kregel, 1998). Nevertheless, far too many exit schools and are confined to segregated enclaves, workshops and activity centers or stay in residences all day with family members and persons who are paid to be with them. Hopefully, this report can assist those interested in changing these most unfortunate school outcomes.

### 1.1Community Work Services Inc. (CWS)

CWS was established in 1984 by Betsy Shiraga and Kim Kessler. From its inception it received public funds to serve adults with significant intellectual and related disabilities in integrated work environments. In 2011 Betsy Shiraga and Kim Kessler retired. Sarah Cutler, who had been a Job Coach for five years, became the Executive Director and Sharon Schmid, who had been a Job Coach for 20 years, became the Program Director. In January, 2020 CWS served 79 workers, employed an 80% time Executive Director, a full time time Program Director, a 50% time Office Manager and the equivalent of 16.5 full time Job Coaches. The total amount of public funds received in 2019 was $1,245,359. This converts to an average cost of$15,764 per year per worker.

## 2Data sources and methodology

The Community Work Services Cumulative Worker Record (Cutler & Schmid, 2020) was developed to capture most of the information contained in this report. The Executive Director and the Program Director then informed Job Coaches how they were to use the record to compile information about the workers for whom they were directly responsible. When a Job Coach gathered the necessary information, he /she met with at least one of the authors and completed each record as thoroughly as possible. The primary data sources were the cumulative file of a worker, recollections of the present and former Directors, information gathered from parents and guardians, CWS Annual Reports, written and verbal reports of Job Coaches and information gathered from the workers, employers, coworkers without disabilities and residential personnel. In some instances, all the information necessary was recorded. In others a small amount of information was not available or unknown.

After the cumulative records were completed, Tables 1 & 2 were constructed and much of the information gathered was presented therein. An earlier report of these workers addressed their functioning from 1981 through 2005 (Brown, Shiraga & Kessler, 2006). As this 2020 report is an extension of that one, in order to maintain a continuous record, it was necessary that much of the information contained in it be repeated here. In addition, information related to guardianship and mortality were added.

 A B C D E F G H I W# SECWSG Diagnostic info Work env Time in env Work tasks Reason for changes Hrs per wk Wages JC support # 1SE - 1981CWS - 1988G - M Moderate ID, Seizure disorder Madison Mutual Housing 4 yr 9 mo Emptying garbage, Vacuuming W desired different job 1992 - 6 1992 - $5.50 1988 - 1 ck - mo1992 - 1 ck - mo Ovens of Brittany Rest - Fordem Ave 2 yr 5 mo Assembling bakery boxes Business closed 1995 - 6 1995 -$4.85 1993 - 1 ck - mo1995 - 1 ck - mo Rocky Rococo Pizza - South 42 yr 6 mo Filling condiment containers, Setting up tables, Simple food prep NA 2005 - 152020 - 10 2005 - $6.952020 -$7.25 1978 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Meriter Hospital 14 yr Greeter, Delivering faxes Job became obsolete 2005 - 62008 - 6 Volunteer 1994 - 1 ck - mo2008 - 1 ck - mo Planned Parenthood 7 yr Packaging condoms W wanted different job 2015 - 3 Volunteer 2008 - 1 ck - mo2015 - 1 ck - mo Catholic Multicultural Center 2 yr 11 mo Stocking dining stations Work became too demanding 2018 - 1 Volunteer 2016 - 1 ck - mo2018 - 1 ck - mo # 2SE - 1982CWS - 1986G - M Moderate ID Madison College Duplicating & Food Service 3 yr Collating, Washing dishes Moved to paid employment 1989 - 15 Volunteer 1986 - 1 to 21989 - 1 to 2 Pizza Hut 1 yr 9 mo Washing dishes Management not supportive 1989 - 12.5 1989 - $2.75 1988 - 10 cks - wk1989 - 10 cks - wk Edgewater Hotel 14 yr 8 mo Dusting, Picking up room service trays, Vacuuming W laid off 2000 - 12.5 2000 -$5.70 1990 - 1 to 22000 - 1 to 2 Madison Fire Station # 1 9 yr 11 mo Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Mopping, Sweeping, Folding towels Moved to job with more compatible partner with disabilities. 2000 - 3 Volunteer 1990 - 1 to 22000 - 1 to 2 Pet World Warehouse 3 yr 2 mo Breaking down boxes, Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Sweeping, Wiping tables & chairs Moved to job with more compatible partner with disabilities 2000 - 6 2000 - $5.15 1997 - 1 to 22000 - 1 to 2 Edgewood College 4 yr 5 mo Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Folding towels, Mopping, Sweeping W laid off 2005 - 9 2005 -$6.05 2000 - 1 to 22005 - 1 to 2 Elks Club 1 yr 9 mo Breaking down boxes, Setting up tables & chairs, Sweeping, Wiping tables & chairs, Polishing banquet trays Health difficulties 2005 - 62007 - 6 2005 - $7.002007 -$7.00 2005 - 1 to 22007 - 1 to 2 Hampton Inn 1 yr 8 mo Cleaning windows, Delittering parking lot, Shampooing carpets, Sweeping, Vacuuming Health difficulties 2005 - 7.52007 - 7.5 2005 - $7.002007 -$7.00 2005 - 1 to 22007 - 1 to 2 WI Commissioner of Insurance 12 yr 5 mo Destapling materials, Shredding NA 2020 - 3 2020 - $7.25 2007 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 WI Dept Corrections 12 yr 5 mo Alphabetizing, Bundling envelopes, Collating, Destapling documents, Labeling, Photocopying, Shredding, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes, Sealing envelopes NA 2020 - 10.5 2020 -$7.25 2007 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 3SE - 1982CWS - 1984G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome Ovens of Brittany - Shorewood 3 yr 2 mo Washing dishes W desired different job 1987 - 15 1987 - $3.45 1984 - 3 ck - wk1987 - 3 ck - wk WI Manufacturers & Commerce 3 yr 7 mo Filing W fired 1991 - 15 1991 -$4.25 1987 - 5 ck - wk1991 - 5 ck - wk Monty’s Blue Plate Diner 2 mo Washing dishes W fired 1991 - 12 1991 - $4.25 1991 - 2 ck - wk1991 - 2 ck - wk WI Dept Revenue 1 yr Filing Job became obsolete - W laid off 1992 - 15 1992 -$3.71 1991 - 5 ck - wk1992 - 5 ck - wk WI Dept Transportation 2 yr 7 mo Filing W desired different job 1995 - 9 1995 - $4.25 1992 - 3 ck - wk1995 - 3 ck - wk Boelter & Lincoln Advertising 2 yr 1 mo Cutting ads from newspapers Job became obsolete - W laid off 1995 - 6 1995 -$4.25 1993 - 1 ck - wk1995 - 1 ck - wk WI Dept Corrections 7 yr 2 mo Alphabetizing, Assembling packets, Simple data entry, Labeling, Collating W fired 2002 - 17.5 2002 - $5.15 1995 - 2 ck - wk2002 - 2 ck - wk Gumby’s Pizza 6 yr 1 mo Assembling pizza boxes, Filling condiment containers, Portioning food Decline in business - W laid off 2008 - 6 2005 -$6.002008 - $6.55 2002 - 2 ck - wk2008 - 2 ck - wk Pasqual’s Rest - Monroe St. 11 yr 10 mo Bussing tables, Simple food prep W desired different job 2015 - 6 to 9 2005 -$6.252015 - $7.25 2003 - 1 ck - mo2015 - 1 ck - mo Toppers Pizza 2 yr 8 mo Assembling pizza boxes, Filling condiment containers, Simple food prep W increased hours at other job 2011 - 6 to 8 2011 -$7.25 2008 - 1 ck - wk2011 - 1 ck - wk WI Commissioner of Insurance 4 yr 6 mo Alphabetizing, Filing, Scanning documents, Shredding NA 2020 - 8 2020 - $7.25 2015 - 1 ck - wk2020 - 1 ck - wk # 4SE - 1983CWS - 1986G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Seizure disorder, Hearing impairment, Alzheimer disease VA Hospital Pharmacy 5 yr 6 mo Counting out pills W moved to paid employment 1987 - 15 1987 - volunteer 1982 - 5 ck - wk1987 - 5 ck - wk Heartland Credit Union 18 yr 3 mo Assembling packets, Delivering & picking up mail, Numerical filing, Shredding, Cleaning break room Business relocated too far away 2004 - 7.5 2002 -$7.00 1986 - 6 ck - wk2004 - 6 ck - wk National Guardian Life Insurance 6 yr 1 mo Collating Team requested more challenging job 1993 - 15 1993 - $4.25 1987 - 10 ck - wk1993 - 10 ck - wk WI Dept Justice 2 yr 8 mo Shredding, Date stamping forms, Counting & sorting forms Team requested more challenging job 1996 - 15 1996 -$4.25 1993 - 10 ck - wk1996 - 10 ck - wk Findorff Construction Co 24 yr 6 mo Shredding, Opening & date stamping mail, Sorting checks by number NA 2005 - 8.752020 - 8.75 2005 - $7.352020 -$7.35 1995 - 1 ck - wk2020 - 10 ck - wk WORT Radio 16 yr 4 mo Shredding NA 2005 - 12020 - 1 2005 - volunteer2020 - volunteer 2003 - 1 ck - wk2020 - 1 ck - wk Madison Public Library 1 yr 6 mo Stamping books Team desired a paying job 2005 - 22006 - 2 2005 - volunteer2006 - volunteer 2005 - 1 ck - wk2006 - 1 ck -wk National Conference of Bar Examiners 14 yr 4 mo Folding letters, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes, Cleaning coffee pots Safety risk, needed increased support 2005 - 62019 - 4 2005 - $5.702019 -$7.25 2005 - 3 ck - wk2019 - 6 ck - wk Research Products - AprilAire 3 yr 5 mo Shredding, Date stamping NA 2020 - 2 2020 - $7.25 2016 - 2 ck - wk2020 - 2 ck - wk Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 6 mo Shredding NA 2020 - 3 2020 -$9.02 2019 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 # 5SE - 1983CWS - 1995G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome UW South Hall 13 yr 10 mo Shredding, Redacting folders & files Parents desired different job 1995 - 12.5 1995 - $4.25 1982 - 2 ck - mo1995 - 2 ck - mo McCardle Cancer Research Lab 18 yr Delivering mail, Collecting for recycling, Washing & stocking glassware, Stocking supplies, Flushing work stations, Cleaning countertops, Filling water baths, Sorting animal cards NA 2005 - 22020 - 2 2005 -$6.002020 - $7.25 1982 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo First Business Bank 15 yr 6 mo Shredding, Delivering mail, Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes, Labeling W fired 2005 - 12.52011 - 12.5 2005 -$5.702011 - $7.25 1995 - 4 ck - wk2011 - 4 ck - wk Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 8 yr 8 mo Assembling packets, Delivering mail, Folding letters, Collecting for recycling, Shredding, Labeling NA 2020 - 6 2020 -$9.02 2011 - 1 to 32020 - 1 to 3 # 6SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - F Moderate ID, Non-verbal Crandall’s Rest 6 yr 2 mo Wiping kitchen counters, Preparing salads, Setting up trays with ice water, Setting up butter dishes Team desired new job 1990 - 15 1990 - $3.65 1984 - 5 ck - wk1990 - 5 ck - wk WI Mutual Insurance Co 3 yr 1 mo Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes Business moved to location off bus line 1987 - 15 1987 -$3.65 1984 - 5 ck - wk1987 - 5 ck - wk Pasqual’s Rest - Monroe St 5 yr 5 mo Sweeping & mopping dining room, Setting up condiment stations, Washing dishes, Bussing tables W moved to Milwaukee - 1995 1995 - 30 1995 - $5.25 1990 - 3 ck - wk1995 - 3 ck - wk # 7SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - F Moderate ID, Seizure disorder Madison City Clerk 35 yr 10 mo Checking envelopes for missed checks, Collating, Bundling pens, Testing pens, Destapling for microfilming, Removing tabs from voter registration books, Stuffing envelopes, Sorting forms for polling sites, Tearing unused voter ballots NA 2005 - 122020 - 12 2005 -$4.242020 - $8.09 1984 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 6 # 8SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome WI Mutual Insurance Co 7 yr 10 mo Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes Business relocated off bus line 1991 - 16 1991 -$3.80 1983 - 8 ck - wk1991 - 8 ck - wk Dane Co District Attorney 7 yr 11 mo Photocopying W quit 1999 - 8 1999 - $5.15 1992 - 6 ck - wk1999 - 6 ck - wk WI Dept Justice - Crime Info 10 yr 9 mo Labeling, Scanning documents Job phased out 2005 - 8 2005 -$5.702007 - $6.50 1995 - 4 ck - wk2007 - 4 ck - wk WI Vital Records 19 yr 5 mo Mailing birth certificates NA 2005 - 52020 - 5 2005 -$5.702020 - $7.55 2000 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 WI Dept Regulation & Licensing 1 yr 2 mo Photocopying W fired 2009 - 4 2009 -$6.55 2008 - 4 ck - wk2009 - 4 ck - wk WI Dept Transportation 9 yr 11 mo Data entry NA 2020 - 5 2020 - $8.00 2010 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 9SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Visual impairment, Physical disability YMCA 5 yr 1 mo Cleaning exercise mats W wanted paid employment 1989 - 4 1989 - volunteer 1984 - 2 ck - wk1989 - 2 ck - wk Madison Public Health 17 yr Alphabetizing, Assembling dental packets, Stamping forms W refused to go to work 2001 - 15 2001 -$3.68 1984 - 1 to 52001 - 1 to 5 Dane Co Sheriff 11 yr 1 mo Cutting mug shots, Shredding, Opening & date stamping mail W refused to go to work 2001 - 6 2001 - $3.68 1989 - 1 to 52001 - 1 to 5 WI Dept Health Services 14yr 10 mo Assembling packets, Shredding, Stamping forms, Stuffing envelopes, Stamping envelopes, Labeling, Folding letters W retired - health difficulties 2005 - 22.52019 - 10 2005 -$5.052019 - $7.25 2005 - 1 to 42019 - 1 to 1 # 10SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - F Severe ID, Cerebral palsy, Physical disability, Severe osteoporosis Madison City Clerk 36 yr 9 mo Shredding, Sorting paper, Stamping envelopes NA 2005 - 62020 - 6 2005 -$3.302020 - $8.09 1984 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 Dane Co Juvenile Detention 17 yr 5 mo Shredding Job phased out 2005 - 42007 - 4 2005 -$4.112007 - $4.43 1990 - 1 to 42007 - 1 to 4 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 12 yr 3 mo Shredding NA 2020 - 6.5 2020 -$9.02 2007 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 11SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Seizure disorder, Heart disease, Alzheimer disease VA Hospital 5 yr 3 mo Packaging pharmaceutical supplies W moved to paid employment 1986 - 15 1986 - volunteer 1981 - 2 ck - mo1986 - 2 ck - mo UW Natatorium 3 yr 5 mo Checking out sports equipment Job phased out 1987 - 5 1987 - $3.35 1984 - 2 ck - mo1987 - 2 ck - mo Burger King - Lake St 1 yr 11 mo Bussing tables W wanted different job 1988 - 20 1988 -$3.35 1986 - 2 ck - mo1988 - 2 ck - mo Rocky Rococo Pizza - Gilman St 1 yr Bussing tables, Simple food prep W laid off 1989 - 20 1989 - $3.35 1988 - 2 ck - mo1989 - 2 ck - mo Skakey’s Pizza - Gammon Rd 2 yr 6 mo Bussing tables W requested more challenging job 1991 - 2020 1991 -$4.00 1989 - 2 ck - mo1991 - 2 ck - mo WI Crime Lab 28 yr 4 mo Three-hole punching, Delivering mail & faxes, Prepping pipettes, Recycling, Checking AED batteries, Purging files, Assembling case files, Stocking supplies, Sterilizing safety glasses, Photocopying, Labeling crime scene photos, Shredding, Sanitizing door knobs NA 2005 - 202020 - 11.75 2005 - $7.752020 -$11.76 1991 - 1 ck - wk2020 - 1 to 1 St. Mary’s Hospital 6 yr 5 mo Delivering magazines NA 2020 -1.5 mo 2020 - volunteer 2013 - 1 to 12020 - 1 to 1 # 12SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - F Severe ID, Cerebral Palsy, Non-verbal Dane Co Social Services 1 yr 1 mo Destapling Team desired paid employment 1985 - 20 1985 - volunteer 1984 - 1 to 21985 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 29 yr 11 mo Collecting for recycling & shredding W died 2005 - 202015 - 5 2005 - $5.702015 -$7.25 1985 - 1 to 22015 - 1 to 2 # 13SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - F Moderate ID, Cerebral Palsy, Physical disability, Non-verbal, Arthritis Madison City Clerk 35 yr 9 mo Collating, Checking payment envelopes for missed checks, Counting & testing pens for election boxes, Destapling for microfilming, Pulling locator tabs off voter registration books, Tearing ballots, Sorting forms by polling sites, Shredding NA 2005 - 152020 - 10.5 2005 - $4.042020 -$8.09 1984 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 5 Madison Public Health 7 yr 8 mo Shredding W required more challenging job 2000 - 5 2000 - $3.49 1992 - 1 to 42000 - 1 to 4 Madison Assessor 17 yr 2 mo Simple data entry Work became too demanding, W retired 2005 - 52017 - 17 2005 -$4.042017 - $7.47 2000 - 1 to 32017 - 1 to 3 # 14SE - 1984CWS - 1984G - M Moderate ID, Non-verbal Avenue Bar & Rest 13 yr 1 mo Breaking down boxes, Stocking soda coolers, Washing dishes Team desired different job 1998 - 25 1998 -$5.15 1985 - 1 ck - mo1998 - 1 ck - mo Mautz Paint 2 yr 11 mo Labeling bags, Sweeping, Using trash compactor Team desired different job 2002 - 25 2002 - $5.40 1999 - 1 ck - mo2002 - 1 ck - mo Madison College - EMS 1 yr 11 mo Assembling packets, Cleaning CPR mannequins Team wanted more social setting 2004 - 4 2004 -$8.57 2002 - 2 ck - wk2004 - 2 ck - wk Steve’s Liquor Market 4 yr Breaking down boxes, Mopping, Mowing grass, Shoveling snow, Sweeping Shredding Team desired different job 2005 - 62006 - 6 2005 - $5.702006 -$5.70 2002 - 1 ck - mo 2006 - 1 ck - mo Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 2 yr 2 mo Team desired different job 2005 - 9 2005 - $5.15 2003 - 1 to 42005 - 1 to 4 Edgewood College 15 yr 11 mo Cleaning windows, Emptying garbage, Recycling NA 2005 - 52020 - 4 2005 -$5.752020 - $7.25 2004 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Hampton Inn 14 yr 7 mo Delittering parking lot, Emptying garbage, Shampooing carpets, Sweeping NA 2005 - 11.52020 - 6 2005 -$7.002020 - $11.27 2005 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo WI Dept of Admin 13 yr 6 mo Vacuuming vehicles NA 2006 - 62020 - 6 2020 -$7.25 2006 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Madison Fleet Maintenance 5 mo Mopping, Recycling, Sweeping, Vacuuming, Washing vehicles, Cleaning bathrooms Poor job match, team desired different job 2018 - 2 2018 - $7.25 2018 - 1 ck - mo # 15SE - 1985CWS - 1989G - M Moderate ID, Seizure disorder, Cerebral Palsy, Physical disability UW Waisman Center 15 yr 7 mo Assisting teacher, Delivering mail, Shredding Reduced stamina, health problems, W asked to leave job 2004 - 6 2004 -$5.15 1989 - 6 ck - wk2004 - 6 ck - wk WI Dept Regulation & Licensing 5 mo Shredding Health difficulties 1993 - 9 1993 - $3.18 1993 - 9 ck - wk WI Dept Corrections 18 yr 11 mo Delivering mail, Folding letters with machine, Shredding, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes, Collecting for shredding, Sorting binder clips NA 2005 - 152020 - 4 2005 -$5.702020 - $7.25 2001 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 # 16SE - 1985CWS - 1985G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Prader- Willi syndrome Ovens of Brittany Rest - Shorewood 6 yr 6 mo Washing dishes Poor job match, team requested more variety 1991 - 15 1991 -$4.00 1985 - 10 ck - wk1991 - 10 ck - wk UW - Steenbock Library 3 yr 10 mo Stamping books W earned more hours at paying job 1989 - 5 1989 - volunteer 1985 - 2 ck - wk1989 - 2 ck - wk Inntowner Hotel 18 yr 5 mo Folding laundry W moved from WI in 2005 2005 - 9 2005 - $5.70 1987 - 3 ck - wk2005 - 3 ck - wk WI Dept Transportation 1 yr 3 mo Three-hole punching, Collating, Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes Team requested more challenging job 1993 - 10 1993 -$3.38 1991 - 10 ck - wk1993 - 10 ck - wk WI Dept Justice 8 mo Collating, Counting FBI forms, Labeling, Sorting forms, Stuffing envelopes W needed more support from coworkers 1993 - 10 1993 - $4.25 1993 - 10 ck - wk National Guardian Ins Co 7 yr 1 mo Collating, Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes W fired - behavioral difficulties 2000 - 12 2000 -$5.40 1993 - 6 ck - wk2000 - 6 ck - wk WI Dept Corrections 6 yr Alphabetizing, Destapling for microfilming, Labeling W moved from WI 2005 - 5.5 2005 - $5.70 1999 - 1 to 52005 - 1 to 5 Madison Public Health 4 yr 9 mo Assembling packets, Labeling, Stamping brochures W moved from WI 2005 - 6 2005 -$5.70 2001 - 1 to 62005 - 1 to 6 # 17SE - 1985CWS - 1985G - F Severe ID, Cerebral Palsy, Non-verbal, Physical disability, Microcephaly Madison College - Library/Bookstore 4 yr 6 mo Sensor stripping books, Stamping books Team wanted paid employment 1989 - 15 1989 - volunteer 1985 - 1 to 21989 - 1 to 2 American Red Cross 7 yr 2 mo Packaging empty blood donor bags, Labeling blood donor bags Team wanted paid employment 1992 - 6 1992 - volunteer 1985 - 1 to 21992 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 30 yr 3 mo Delivering mail, Collecting for recycling, Shredding, Folding letters, Collating, Destapling documents, Stuffing envelopes NA 2005 - 16.52020 - 16 2005 - $5.702020 -$9.02 1989 - 1 to 32020 - 1 to 3 High Point Church 8 mo Restocking church pews, Stuffing bulletins Increased hours at paid job 1993 - 6 1993 - volunteer 1992 - 1 to 21993 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Juvenile Cntr 25 yr 9 mo Shredding NA 2005 - 5 2005 - $4.162020 -$9.02 1994 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 18SE - 1985CWS - 1985G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Seizure disorder, Alzheimer disease Brat & Brau Rest 9 yr 2 mo Setting tables, Stocking salad bar, Filling condiment containers Business closed 1993 - 12.5 1993 - $4.25 1984 - 3 ck - wk1993 - 3 ck - wk Greenleaf Grocery 3 yr 9 mo Bagging & weighing bulk items Business closed 1988 - 5 1988 -$1.68 1984 - 2 ck - wk1988 - 2 ck - wk Cornucopia Grocery 3 mo Bagging & weighing bulk items W laid off 1989 - 5 1989 - $3.35 1988 - 2 ck - wk1989 - 2 ck - wk Kids Play Daycare Cntr 2 yr 8 mo Assisting teacher, Setting up for snack time W quit 1991 - 5 1991 - volunteer 1989 - 2 ck - wk1991 - 2 ck - wk Kinko’s 3 yr 9 mo Stocking copiers, Stocking supplies, Cleaning glass doors Team desired different job 1995 - 6 1995 -$4.50 1991 - 6 ck - wk1995 - 6 ck - wk WI Office Vital Records 4 yr 3 mo Mailing birth certificates W quit 1998 - 10 1998 - $5.15 1994 - 10 ck - wk1998 - 10 ck - wk Flad Architects 3 yr Shelving books, Putting circulation cards in books W quit 1998 - 6 1998 -$5.50 1995 - 4 ck - wk1998 - 4 ck - wk Regent Coop Market 7 yr 2mo Facing, Stocking shelves Health difficulties 2005 - 9 2009 - $6.00 1998 - 9 ck - wk2005 - 9 ck - wk Planned Parenthood 9 mo Stuffing envelopes Health difficulties 2006 - 2.5 2006 - volunteer 2005 - 1 to 12006 - 1 to 1 Community Work Services 7 mo Shredding Health difficulties 2006 - 2.5 2006 - volunteer 2005 - 1 to 12006 - 1 to 1 # 19SE - 1985CWS - 1985G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome Fess Hotel 11 mo Simple food prep, Cleaning vegetables W laid off 1986 - 15 1986 -$3.35 1985 - 15 ck - wk1986 - 15 ck - wk Amy’s Café 2 yr Mopping, Sweeping, Vacuuming, Washing dishes Health difficulties 1988 -- 15 1988 - $3.35 1986 - 15 ck - wk1988 - 15 ck - wk Edgewater Hotel 1 yr 2 mo Washing dishes W fired 1989 - 15 1989 -$3.35 1988 - 10 ck - wk1989 - 10 ck - wk Rocky Rococo Pizza - Sherman Ave 6 yr 10 mo Bussing tables, Mopping, Sweeping, Vacuuming, Washing dishes W fired 1996 - 15 1996 - $4.75 1989 - 10 ck - wk1996 - 10 ck - wk Olds Seed Co 3 mo Packaging seeds Job phased out 1995 - 5 1995 -$4.25 1994 - 4 ck - wk1995 - 4 ck - wk Mounds Pet Food Warehouse 1 yr 9 mo Dust mopping, Breaking down boxes, Bagging pet food products Business closed 1998 - 9 1998 - $5.15 1996 - 6 ck - wk1998 - 6 ck - wk Gumby’s Pizza 3 yr Assembling pizza boxes Business closed 2000 - 6 2000 -$5.15 1997 - 6 ck - wk2000 - 6 ck - wk Jung Garden Center 15 yr 2 mo Delittering parking lot, Dust mopping, Mopping, Cleaning glass doors, Breaking down boxes Health difficulties 2005 - 7.52014 - 7.5 2005 - $5.702014 -$6.55 1999 - 3 ck - wk2014 - 3 ck - wk Warner Park Rec Cntr 3 yr 8 mo Vacuuming W fired 2005 - 6 2005 - volunteer 2001 - 2 ck - wk2005 - 2 ck - wk Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 8 yr 4 mo Collecting for recycling Health difficulties 2014 - 6 2014 - $7.25 2006 - 1 to 22014 - 1 to 2 Rainbow Project 2 yr Stocking supplies, Vacuuming, Cleaning windows W fired 2012 - 2 2012 - volunteer 2010 - 2 ck - wk2012 - 2 ck - wk # 20SE - 1989CWS - 1985G -M Severe ID, Hearing impairment, Non-verbal, Visual disability, Physical disability, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Significant arthritis Dane Co Social Services 1 yr 1 mo Destapling W moved to paid employment 1986 - 10 1986 - volunteer 1985 - 1 to 21986 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 25 yr 1 mo Collecting for shredding W died 2012 2005 - 11 2012 - near end of life support was at home -worked minimal hours 2005 -$5.702012 - $7.25 1986 - 1 to 22012 - 1 to 2 Madison Fire Station # 1 25 yr 3 mo Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Setting dinner table, Mopping, Folding towels, Cleaning bathrooms, Washing vehicles, Vacuuming, Sweeping W died 2012 2005 - 3 2012 - near end of life was receiving support at home - worked minimal hours 2005 -$5.702012 - $7.25 1987 - 1 to 22012 - 1 to 2 Pet World Warehouse 12 yr 8 mo Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Wiping tables in breakroom, Breaking down boxes W laid off 2005 - 62009 - 6 2005 -$5.702009 - $7.25 1997 - 1 to 22009 - 1 to 2 Movin’ Out 1 yr 10 mo Dusting, Emptying garbage, Stocking copiers with paper, Wiping counters, Watering plants, Vacuuming Poor job match 2011 - 6 2011 -$7.25 2009 - 1 to 22011 - 1 to 2 Madison Fire Station # 4 2 yr 11 mo Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Setting dinner table, Washing vehicles, Vacuuming, Sweeping, Mopping, Folding towels, Cleaning bathrooms W died 2012 2012 - 3 W supported at home near end of life - worked minimal hours 2012 - $7.25 2009 - 1 to 22012 - 1 to 2 # 21SE - 1985CWS - 1985G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Dementia Bauman’s Deli 3 yr 3 mo Bussing tables, Filling condiment containers, Setting up tables Poor job match 1987 - 12.5 1987 -$2.50 1984 - 10 ck - wk1987 - 10 ck - wk Madison College - Library 1 yr 2 mo Sensor stripping books, Stamping books Poor job match 1986 - 9 1986 - volunteer 1985 - 1 to 31986 - 1 to 3 Madison Fire Station # 1 4 yr 2 mo Cleaning vehicles, Sweeping W moved to paid employment 1990 - 9 1990 - volunteer 1986 - 1 to 31990 - 1 to 3 WI Dept Health Services 32 yr 3 mo Assembling packets, Collating, Labeling, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes, Stapling W died in 2018 2005 - 62018 - 6 2005 - $5.052018 -$7.25 1986 - 1 to 32018 - 1 to 3 Inntowner Hotel 5 mo Folding laundry W fired - poor work quality 1991 - 9 1991 - $3.80 1990 - 9 ck - wk1991 - 9 ck - wk Dane Co Juvenile Detention 7 yr 5 mo Shredding W laid off - lack of work space 1998 - 9 1998 -$2.62 1991 - 1 to 51998 - 1 to 5 Madison Health Dept 8 yr 3 mo Shredding W needed more active job 2005 - 92006 - 9 2005 - $3.532006 -$3.60 1998 - 1 to 62006 - 1 to 6 Dane Co Sheriff’s 9 yr 1 mo Opening & date stamping mail, Shredding Job change needed for support reasons 2005 - 52010 - 5 2005 - $5.702010 -$7.25 2001 - 1 to 52010 - 1 to 5 Edgewood College 8 mo Vacuuming, Watering plants Job phased out 2007 - 6 2007 - $6.55 2006 - 1 to 22007 - 1 to 2 WI Dept Corrections 11 yr 3 mo Shredding W died in 2018 2018 - 6 2018 -$7.25 2007 - 1 to 42018 - 1 to 4 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 8 yr 5 mo Shredding W died in 2018 2018 - 4 2018 - $8.46 2010 - 1 to 22018 - 1 to 2 # 22SE - 1985CWS - 1985G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Alzheimer disease Inntowner Hotel 1 yr 3 mo Folding laundry, Stocking linens in rooms W fired - behavioral difficulties 1986 - 20 1986 -$3.35 1985 - 10 ck - wk1986 - 10 ck - wk Madison Club 8 yr 6 mo Folding laundry Hotel closed laundry 1994 - 15 1994 - $3.19 1986 - 1 to 51994 - 1 to 5 Magic Penny Daycare Ctr 6 yr 4 mo Assisting teacher Business closed 1992 - 5 1992 - volunteer 1986 - 4 ck - wk1992 - 4 ck - wk Dane Co Law Library 10 yr 5 mo Stamping books, Shelving journals Job given to full time employees 1997 - 5 1997 -$5.15 1987 - 1 to 51997 - 1 to 5 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 6 yr 1 mo Collecting for recycling Health difficulties - job became too physically demanding 1997 - 12 1997 - $5.15 1991 - 1 to 51997 - 1 to 5 WI Dept Regulation & Licensing 19 yr 9 mo Assembling packets, Collating, Dusting, Emptying garbage, Folding letters, Labeling, Stuffing envelopes, Stapling Health difficulties - W wanted to retire 2005 - 152012 - 15 2005 -$5.702012 - $7.25 1992 - 5 ck - wk2012 - 5 ck - wk Fletcher Advertising 11 mo Dusting, Emptying garbage, Vacuuming W laid off - lack of work 1995 - 4 1995 -$4.25 1994 - 4 ck - wk1995 - 4 ck - wk WI Office Vital Records 14 yr Mailing birth certificates, Stocking supplies Health difficulties - W wanted to retire 2005 - 92012 - 9 2005 - $5. 702012 -$6.50 1998 - 6 ck - wk2012 - 6 ck - wk # 23SE - 1985CWS - 1985G - M Severe ID, Cerebral Palsy, Non-verbal Madison College - Bookstore 4 yr 6 mo Packing books, Unpacking supplies W moved to paid employment 1989 - 15 1989 - volunteer 1985 - 1 to 21989 - 1 to 2 American Red Cross 7 yr 2 mo Labeling blood donor bags, Packaging empty blood donor bags W moved to paid employment - wanted more social interactions 1992 - 6 1992 - volunteer 1985 - 1 to 21992 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 23 yr 1 mo Breaking down boxes, Delivering mail, Collecting for recycling, Separating forms, Shredding Health difficulties - W retired 2005 - 202017 - 20 2005 - $5.702017 -$8.46 1989 - 1 to 32017 - 1 to 3 High Point Church 8 mo Restocking church pews, Stuffing bulletins Increased hours at paid job 1993 - 6 1993 - volunteer 1992 - 1 to 21993 - 1 to 2 # 24SE - 1986CWS - 1989G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome WI Dept Corrections 10 yr 8 mo Labeling, Stamping envelopes, Destapling files to be microfilmed, Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes, Stapling, Alphabetizing W died in 1999 1999 - 20 1999 - $5.72 1989 - 1 to 41999 - 1 to 4 # 25SE - 1985CWS - 1986G - F Severe ID, Non-verbal WI Dept Health 33 yr 6 mo Assembling packets, Collating, Labeling, Stuffing envelopes, Stapling NA 2005 - 102020 - 6 2005 -$6.462020 - $7.40 1986 - 1 to 32020 - 1 to 3 Madison Housing Operations 23 yr 10 mo Collating, Stapling Job became obsolete 2005 - 92010 - 9 2005 -$4.762010 - $5.31 1986 - 1 to 42010 - 1 to 4 Madison Common Council 10 yr 3 mo Shredding, Destapling documents to be shredded Work space eliminated 2005 - 32010 - 3 2005 -$4.762010 - $5.47 2000 - 1 to 62010 - 1 to 6 WI Commissioner of Insurance 9 yr 8 mo Shredding, Destapling documents to be shredded NA 2020 - 6 2020 -$7.50 2010 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 26SE - 1986CWS - 1986G - M Mild ID, Seizure disorder, Cerebral Palsy, Physical disability, Hearing impairment Central WI Ctr 34 yr 3 mo Delivering mail, Delivering medications NA 2005 - 152020 - 20 2005 - $6.002020 -$8.33 1985 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Madison Assessor 20 yr 7 mo Simple data entry W wanted to retire 2005 - 72014 - 7 2005 - $5.702014 -$6.64 1993 - 1 to 42014 - 1 to 4 # 27SE - 1986CWS - 1986G - M Moderate ID, Seizure disorder, Non-verbal, Hearing impairment Pizzeria Uno 23 yr 9 mo Assembling pizza boxes, Breaking down boxes, Setting up tables, Washing dishes, Polishing brass, Simple food prep Business closed 2005 - 62009 - 6 2005 - $5.702009 -$7.25 1986 - 2 ck - wk2009 - 2 ck - wk Toys R Us 4 yr 3 mo Breaking down boxes, Cleaning bathrooms, Shrink wrapping merchandise, Sweeping Poor job match 1996 - 5 1996 - $5.95 1991 - 1 to 21996 - 1 to 2 Madison Planning & Dev 23 yr 10 mo Collecting for recycling Job became obsolete & office relocated 2005 - 52016 - 5 2005 -$5.952016 - $8.45 1993 - 1 to 52016 - 1 to 5 American Red Cross 1 yr 7 mo Setting up chairs, Cleaning chalkboards W moved to paid employment 1997 - 5 1997 - volunteer 1996 - 1 to 21997 - 1 to 2 WI Commissioner of Insurance 21 yr Collating, Labeling, Folding letters, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes Team wanted new job to enhance independence 2005 - 92017 - 9 2005 -$5.702017 - $7.25 1996 - 1 to 42017 - 1 to 4 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 20 yr 3 mo Collecting for recycling W moved from Madison 2005 - 2.52017 - 2.5 2005 -$5.702017 - $8.46 1997 - 1 ck - wk2017 - 1 ck - wk Madison Public Health Nursing 10 mo Packaging & separating condoms, Stamping envelopes, Assembling syringe kits W moved from Madison 2017 - 4 2017 -$8.46 2017 - 2 ck - wk2017 - 2 ck - wk Nature’s Bakery Coop 7 mo Opening zip lock bags, Labeling bags with stickers W moved from Madison 2017 - 3.75 2017 - $8.25 2017 - 1 ck - wk2017 - 1 ck - wk # 28SE - 1986CWS - 1986G - M Severe ID, Down syndrome WI Dept Health 33 yr 9 mo Collating, Folding letters using folding machine, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes, Collecting mail to be delivered NA 2005 - 102020 - 4 2005 -$ 4.412020 - $7.40 1986 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 Madison Fire Station #1 10 mo Cleaning vehicles Poor job match 1987 - 9 1987 - Volunteer 1986 - 1 to 31987 - 1 to 3 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 32 yr 11 mo Collecting for recycling NA 2005 - 92020 - 9 2005 -$5.702020 - $9.02 1987 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 # 29SE - 1986CWS - 1986G - M Moderate ID, Seizure disorder, Non-verbal, Autism, Schizophrenia Madison College -Duplicating & Food Service 3 yr 1 mo Bussing tables, Collating W moved to paid employment; Team wanted different tasks 1989 - 15 1989 - volunteer 1986 - 1 to 21989 - 1 to 2 Madison Fire Station # 3 11 yr 8 mo Cleaning vehicles, Dust mopping, Dusting, Sweeping Moved to paid employment 2001 - 9 2001 - volunteer 1989 - 1 to 22001 - 1 to 2 WI Div Public Health 29 yr 9 mo Folding letters, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes NA 2005 - 62020 - 6 2005 -$3.892020 - $7.55 1990 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 Madison Police Dept 29 yr 4 mo Destapling documents for shredding, Shredding NA 2005 - 52020 - 5 2005 -$4.042020 - $8.09 1990 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 Badger Cab 15 yr 3 mo Cleaning bathrooms, Emptying garbage, Mopping, Vacuuming W laid off due to company financial restraints 2005 - 92012 - 9 2005 -$6.202012 - $7.25 1997 - 1 to 22012 - 1 to 2 Madison Fleet Services 3 yr 6 mo Cleaning glass doors, Cleaning bathrooms, Cleaning windows, Mopping, Sweeping Poor job match 2016 - 7.5 2016 -$8.09 2012 - 1 to 22016 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Public Health Nursing 3 yr 9 mo Shredding NA 2020 - 6 2020 - $9.02 2016 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 # 30SE - 1986CWS - 1986G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Diabetes McKee’s Rest 1 yr 9 mo Vacuuming, Washing dishes Business closed 1988 - 12.5 1988 -$3.55 1986 - 8 ck - wk1988 - 8 ck - wk Madison Fire Station # 1 9 yr 6 mo Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Folding towels, Mopping, Sweeping W moved to paid employment 1996 - 9 1996 - volunteer 1986 - 1 to 31996 - 1 to 3 Pizza Hut - E. Washington 1 yr 9 mo Washing dishes Mgmt not supportive 1990 - 12.5 1990 - $2.75 1988 - 8 ck - wk1990 - 8 ck - wk Pasqual’s Rest - Atwood Ave 5 yr 8 mo Washing dishes Health difficulties 1996 - 12.5 1996 -$4.50 1990 - 8 ck - wk1996 - 8 ck - wk WI Commissioner of Insurance 23 yr 7 mo Labeling, Folding letters, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes, Collecting for recycling NA 2005 - 92020 - 12 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.25 1996 - 1 to 32020 - 1 to 3 Edgewater Hotel 9 yr 5 mo Collecting room service trays, Vacuuming W laid off - decline in business 2005 - 5 2005 - $5.15 1996 - 1 to 22005 - 1 to 2 WI Dept Transportation 19 yr 5 mo Alphabetizing, Destapling, Shredding NA 2005 - 7.52020 - 6 2005 -$5.702020 - $8.00 2000 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 Elks Lodge 1 yr 9 mo Breaking down boxes, Setting up tables & chairs, Sweeping, Wiping down tables & chairs, Polishing banquet trays W increased hours at different job 2005 - 62007 - 6 2005 -$7.002007 - $7.00 2005 - 1 to 22007 - 1 to 2 # 31SE - 1986CWS - 1986G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Hearing impairment Madison Club 2 yr Folding laundry W fired - behavior difficulties 1987 - 9 1987 -$2.50 1985 - 1 to 41987 - 1 to 4 State Capital Law Library 3 yr 3 mo Destapling documents for microfilming W moved to paid employment 1989 - 5 1989 - volunteer 1986 - 1 to 41989 - 1 to 4 Madison College 2 yr 9 mo Alphabetizing, Collating, Labeling, Stuffing envelopes W moved to paid employment 1990 - 9 1990 - volunteer 1987 - 1 to 21990 - 1 to 2 WI Dept Corrections 29 yr 5 mo Alphabetizing, Assembling packets, Destapling documents for microfilming, Labeling, Folding letters, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes NA 2005 - 10.52020 - 10.5 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.25 1990 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 Dane Co Sheriff 27 yr 4 mo Destapling documents for microfilming, Opening & date stamping mail, Stamping envelopes, Separating criminal history documents Job became obsolete 2005 - 52020 - 5 2005 - $5.702020 -$8.46 1991 - 1 to 42018 - 1 to 4 Double Tree Hotel 2 mo Folding laundry, Rolling silverware Poor job match 2018 - 3 2018 - $7.25 2018 - 1 to 22018 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 1 yr 3 mo Shredding NA 2020 - 3 2020 -$9.02 2018 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 32SE - 1986CWS - 1986G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Physical disability, Alzheimer disease UW Credit Union 7 yr 10 mo Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes, Assembling packets, Shredding W laid off - job phased out 1993 - 9 1993 - $4.25 1986 - 6 ck - wk1993 - 6 ck - wk National Guardian Life Ins Co 5 yr 7 mo Collating, Putting envelope flaps up in boxes, Labeling W died 2003 - 9 2003 -$5.15 1987 - 3 ck - wk2003 - 3 ck - wk Dane Co Sheriff 9 mo Destapling files to be microfilmed Health difficulties 1994 - 6 1994 - $2.50 1993 - 1 to 41994 - 1 to 4 # 33SE - 1987CWS - 1987G - M Moderate ID, Autism WI Dept Health 32 yr 8 mo Delivering mail, Collating, Folding letters, Labeling, Shredding, Stamping envelopes NA 2005 - 102020 - 8 2005 -$5.702020 - $7.25 1987 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 Madison College 1 yr 6 mo Collating Fired - behavioral difficulties 1989 - 9 1989 - volunteer 1987 - 1 to 21989 - 1 to 2 Madison Fire Station # 3 12 yr 4 mo Cleaning bathrooms, Dust mopping, Cleaning vehicles, Dusting W increased hours at paid job 2001 - 9 2001 - volunteer 1989 - 1 to 22001 - 1 to 2 Badger Cab 15 yr 3 mo Cleaning bathrooms, Cleaning windows, Emptying garbage, Mopping, Vacuuming W laid off - company had financial issues 2005 - 92012 - 9 2005 -$6.202012 - $7.25 1997 - 1 to 22012 - 1 to 2 Madison Fleet Services 7 yr 4 mo Cleaning bathrooms, Dust mopping, Cleaning windows, Mopping, Wiping benches & tables NA 2020 - 6 2020 -$9.11 2012 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 # 34SE - 1987CWS - 1987G - F Moderate ID, Seizure disorder, Visual impairment Orvis’s Deli 2 yr 2 mo Bussing tables, Slicing & buttering buns, Filling salad containers Business closed 1989 - 15 1989 - $1.34 1987 - 15 ck - wk1989 - 15 ck - wk Dane Co Court Commissioner 3 yr 1 mo Destapling documents for microfilming Office relocated - limited work space 1992 - 15 1992 -$4.25 1989 - 1 to 51992 - 1 to 5 Edgewood College 3 yr 3 mo Dusting, Collecting for recycling, Mail delivery Poor job match 1993 - 5 1993 - $2.12 1989 - 1 to 21993 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Print Shop 1 yr 9 mo Destapling documents for microfilming W transferred to different job - lack of work space 1994 - 15 1995 -$5.15 1992 - 1 to 51994 - 1 to 5 St. Mary’s Hospital 6 yr 10 mo Folding letters, Labeling W moved to paid employment 1999 - 6 1999 - volunteer 1993 - 6 ck - wk1999 - 6 ck - wk Dane Co District Attorney 27 yr 6 mo Shredding, Destapling, Collecting for recycling NA 2005 - 92020 - 9 2005 - $5.702020 -$9.02 1992 - 1 to 62020 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 25 yr 9 mo Collecting for recycling, Shredding NA 2005 - 62020 - 6 2005 - $5.702020 -$9.02 1994 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 WI Dept Transportation 20 yr Shredding NA 2005 - 52020 - 4 2005 - $5.702020 -$8.00 2000 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 35SE - 1987CWS - 1995G - M Moderate ID Pasqual’s Rest - Monroe St 7 yr 7 mo Bussing tables, Washing dishes, Stocking dining stations W desired a different job 2003 - 20 2003 - $5.50 1995 - 5 ck - wk2003 - 5 ck - wk UW Kohl Center 16 yr Delivering & sorting mail Increased work hours in other areas at Kohl Center 2005 - 202016 - 7.5 2005 -$7.502016 - $8.00 2000 - 1 ck - mo2016 - 1 ck - mo UW Kohl Center - Food & Beverage 16 yr 5 mo Cleaning vegetables, Dust mopping, Mopping, Simple food prep, Washing dishes, Sweeping NA 2005 - 202020 - 17.5 2005 -$7.502020 - $10.00 2003 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Blue Moon Bar & Grill 8 mo (over 3 summers) Breaking down boxes, Delittering parking lot, Mowing grass, Filling condiment containers, Taking down chairs & stools, Wiping tables, Watering plants W desired different job 2010 - 4 2010 -$7.25 2007 - 1 ck - mo2010 - 1 ck - mo First United Methodist Church 4 mo (over 2 summers) Stocking supplies, Stocking soda coolers, Loading & moving pallets Not enough work 2010 - 3 2010 - volunteer 2009 - 1 ck - mo2010 - 1 ck - mo UW Kohl Center - Facilities Mgmt 6 mo (over 3 summers) Dust mopping, Cleaning parking lot, Emptying garbage, Mopping, Sweeping Not enough work 2015 - 6 2015 - $7.25 2012 - 1 ck - mo2015 - 1 ck - mo Catholic Multicultural Center 4 mo (over 2 summers) Stocking supplies, Washing dishes NA 2020 - 6 2020 - volunteer 2018 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo # 36SE - 1987CWS - 1987G - F Moderate ID WI Div Health 16 yr 3 mo Folding letters, Photocopying, Labeling, Stuffing envelopes W fired - poor attendance 2003 - 10 2003 -$5.15 1987 - 1 to 22003 - 1 to 2 Madison College 1 yr 6 mo Stuffing envelopes, Photocopying, Labeling, Folding letters W moved to paid employment 1989 - 9 1989 - volunteer 1988 - 1 to 21989 - 1 to 2 WI Environmental Health 13 yr 3 mo Folding letters, Photocopying, Stuffing envelopes W fired - poor attendance 2003 - 12 2003 - $5.15 1990 - 10 ck - wk2003 - 10 ck - wk St James Church 15 yr 9 mo Labeling, Stuffing envelopes, Putting postage on envelopes, Sealing envelopes NA 2005 - 32020 - 3 2005 - volunteer2020 - volunteer 2004 - 1 ck - wk2020 - 1 ck - wk Dane Co ARC 6 mo Stuffing envelopes, Labeling, Putting postage on mailings W laid off 2005 - 3 2005 - volunteer 2004 - 4 ck - wk2005 - 4 ck - wk Community Work Services 3 yr 1 mo Photocopying W increased hours at higher paying job 2005 - 32008 - 3 2005 -$5.702008 - $5.70 2005 - 6 ck - wk2008 - 6 ck - wk First United Methodist Church 3 yr 6 mo Folding letters, Labeling Job phased out 2005 - 3 every other wk2008 - 3 every other wk 2005 - volunteer2008 - volunteer 2005 - 1 ck - wk2009 - 1 ck - wk WI Commissioner of Insurance 1 yr 2 mo Shredding W desired different job 2007 - 3 2007 -$6.50 2006 - 2 ck - wk2007 - 2 ck - wk WI Dept Corrections 12 yr 7 mo Shredding, Photocopying, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes, Folding letters, Labeling, Collating, Alphabetizing NA 2020 - 10 2020 - $7.25 2007 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 # 37SE - 1987CWS - 1987G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome Rocky Rococo Pizza - University Ave 3 yr 1 mo Bussing tables, Washing dishes W fired - behavioral difficulties 1990 - 20 1990 -$2.04 1987 - 40 ck - wk1990 - 40 ck - wk Community Work Services 2 yr 7 mo Emptying garbage, Vacuuming Team desired different job with more social interactions 1993 - 6 1993 - $4.25 1990 - 12 ck - wk1993 - 12 ck - wk WI Dept Revenue 11 yr Redacting file folders, Alphabetizing, Highlighting file folders Business relocated too far away 2001 - 6 2001 -$3.62 1990 - 6 ck - wk2001 - 6 ck - wk Steve’s Liquor Market 7 yr 6 mo Breaking down boxes, Vacuuming, Sweeping Moved to job with more JC supervision 2002 - 6 2002 - $5.15 1994 - 6 ck - wk2002 - 6 ck - wk Madison Fire Station # 1 21 yr 11 mo Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Folding towels & blankets, Mopping, Cleaning vehicles, Wiping tables & counters, Unloading & loading dishwasher, Sweeping, Vacuuming, Setting tables NA 2005 - 32020 - 3 2005 -$5.702020 - $7.25 1998 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 Regent Coop Market 1 yr 7 mo Breaking down boxes, Cleaning glass doors, Dust mopping, Emptying garbage, Facing & stocking shelves, Vacuuming, Sweeping W laid off 2000 - 6 2000 -$5.15 1998 - 1 to 22000 - 1 to 2 Pet World Warehouse 8 yr 9 mo Sweeping, Emptying garbage, Breaking down boxes, Wiping tables & counters W laid off 2005 - 62009 - 6 2005 - $5.702009 -$6.55 2000 - 1 to 22009 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 9 yr 2 mo Collecting for recycling NA 2005 - 7.52020 - 4 2005 - $5.702020 -$9.02 2000 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 WI Div Health 16 yr 4 mo Shredding, Alphabetizing, Folding letters, Stamping envelopes. Stuffing envelopes NA 2005 - 62020 - 4 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.25 2003 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 TASC 11 yr 8 mo Stocking copiers with paper, Making notepads, Wiping tables & counters, Stocking supplies, Loading & unloading dishwasher NA 2020 - 4 2020 - $7.25 2008 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 Movin’ Out 1 yr 10 mo Stocking copiers with paper, Wiping tables & counters, Watering plants, Vacuuming Increased hours at another job 2011 - 6 2011 -$7.25 2009 - 1 to 22011 - 1 to 2 Madison Fire Station # 4 10 yr 6 mo Cleaning windows, Vacuuming, Folding towels & blankets, Emptying garbage, Dusting, Dust mopping, Mopping, Collecting for recycling, Setting tables, Washing vehicles, Loading & unloading dishwasher, Stocking soda coolers, Wiping tables & counters NA 2020 - 2 2020 - $7.25 2009 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 # 38SE - 1988CWS - 1988G - F Severe ID Madison College - Bookstore 11 mo Sensor stripping books, Stamping books Team desired different job & paid work 1988 - 7.5 1988 - Volunteer 1988 - 1 to 3 WI Dept Corrections 3 yr 5 mo Folding letters, Labeling, Stuffing envelopes, Sorting forms W fired -behavioral difficulties 1988 - 7.5 1988 -$4.25 1988 - 1 to 31992 - 1 to 3 Madison Police Dept 2 yr 6 mo Shredding Poor job match 1993 - 5 1993 - $3.80 1990 - 1 to 21993 - 1 to 2 WI Craft Market 1 yr Pricing items with gun W stopped attending work - mental health challenges 1994 - 5 1994 -$4.25 1993 - 1 to 11994 - 1 to 1 Great Harvest Bread Co 9 yr 2 mo Bagging food products, Labeling bread bags W laid off 2004 - 2.5 2004 - $5.15 1994 - 1 to 12004 - 1 to 1 Pasqual’s Rest - Production Facility 5 yr 5 mo Labeling salsa containers, Pricing items with gun Business closed 2000 - 5 2000 -$5.15 1995 - 1 to 12000 - 1 to 1 First United Methodist Church 7 yr 3 mo Labeling & stuffing church bulletins Moved to paid employment 2002 - 5 2002 - Volunteer 1995 - 1 to 12002 - 1 to 1 Planned Parenthood 6 yr 11 mo Packaging & separating condoms Moved to paid employment 2008 - 5 2008 - Volunteer 2001 - 1 to 32008 - 1 to 3 Law Center for Children & Families 17 yr 2 mo Shredding, Collecting for shredding, Watering plants NA 2020 - 4 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.25 2002 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 Nature’s Bakery Coop 15 yr 6 mo Labeling bread bags & boxes NA 2020 - 1.25 2005 - $5.702020 -$8.25 2004 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 12 yr 10 mo Collecting for recycling, Collecting for shredding NA 2020 - 9 2007 - $6.502020 -$9.02 2007 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 #39SE - 1988CWS - 1988G - F Moderate ID Hardees Rest - Milwaukee St 4 yr 8 mo Making salads, Filling salad containers Poor job match 1992 - 15 1992 - $3.05 1987 - 10 cks - wk1992 - 10 cks - wk Video Land 9 mo Dusting, Shelving video tapes Poor job match 1992 - 5 1992 -$3.85 1991 - 5 cks - wk1992 - 5 cks - wk WI Dept Justice 7 mo Three hole punching, Collating, Counting FBI forms, Labeling, Stuffing envelopes, Sorting forms by type W fired - behavioral difficulties 1993 - 15 1993 - $3.42 1992 - 15 cks - wk1993 - 15 cks - wk Meriter Hospital - Adult Services 4 yr 2 mo Delivering mail, Distributing ice water to patients W moved to paid employment 1997 - 12 1997 - Volunteer 1993 - 8 cks - wk1997 - 8 cks - wk Methodist Day Care Ctr 2 mo Assisting teacher W fired 1993 - 5 1993 - Volunteer 1993 - 2 cks - wk Dane Co Public Health Nursing 18 yr 5 mo Labeling, Shredding, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes Job phased out 2014 - 5 2014 - Volunteer 1995 - 1 to 42014 - 1 to 4 Dane Co Human Services 15 yr 3 mo Assembling packets, Collecting for recycling, Shredding, W laid off 2011 - 5 2005 -$5.702011 - $7.25 1995 - 1 to 42011 - 1 to 4 Ad World 1 yr 4 mo Bundling newspapers, Cutting advertisements out of newspapers, Sorting & labeling photos, Vacuuming W laid off 1998 - 9 1998 -$5.15 1997 - 6 cks - wk1998 - 6 cks - wk WI Dept Corrections 18 yr 3 mo Alphabetizing, Assembling packets, Collating, Destapling for microfilming, Labeling, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes, Separating forms by county code, Folding letters NA 2020 - 6 2001 - $5.152005 -$5.702020 - $7.25 2001 - 1 to 62020 - 1 to 6 Dane Co Public Health Nursing 1 yr 3 mo Preparing heroin kits, Packaging condoms NA 2020 - 4 2020 -$9.02 2018 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 # 40SE - 1988CWS - 1989G - M Moderate ID, Seizure disorder, Visual impairment Washington Post Rest 7 mo Breaking down boxes, Cleaning bathrooms, Mopping, Sweeping Business closed 1990 - 15 1990 - $3.65 1989 - 15 cks - wk1990 - 15 cks - wk State Street Brats 27 yr 1 mo Cleaning bathrooms, Mopping, Setting up tables, Stocking ice bins, Sweeping, Taking down chairs, Setting out condiments & menus Performance decrement - needed more support 2017 - 20 2005 -$6.002017 - $7.25 1990 - 2 cks - mo2017 - 2 cks - mo Madison Fire Station # 4 5 yr 1 mo Mopping, Sweeping, Moved to paid employment 1995 - 7.5 1995 - Volunteer 1991 - 3 cks - wk1995 - 3 cks - wk First United Methodist Church 2 yr Simple data entry Work too difficult 1996 - 1.5 1996 - Volunteer 1994 - 1 ck - wk1996 - 1 ck - wk Bayview Foundation 3 yr 3 mo Mopping, Sweeping, Vacuuming Team desired a different job 1998 - 1.5 1998 - Volunteer 1995 - 1 ck - wk1998 - 1 ck - wk Meriter Hospital 20 yr 3 mo Delivering magazines to waiting areas W wanted to retire 2016 - 1.5 2016 - Volunteer 1996 - 1 ck - mo2016 - 1 ck - mo Home Savings Bank 16 yr 1 mo Breaking down boxes, Distributing paychecks, Microfilming checks, Collecting for recycling, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes, Stamping money wrappers, Sorting forms by bank branch, Watering plants Business relocated 2012 - 7.5 2005 -$6.002012 - $7.25 1996 - 3 cks - wk2012 - 3 cks - wk Madison Public Library 10 yr 4 mo Stamping books Job became obsolete 2009 - 1.5 2009 - Volunteer 1998 - 1 ck - mo2009 - 1 ck - mo Madison Municipal Court 6 yr 3 mo Shredding NA 2020 - 1.5 2020 -$8.93 2013 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 WI Commissioner of Insurance 1 yr 6 mo Shredding, Stuffing envelopes Needed better support match 2018 - 6 2018 - $7.25 2017 - 1 to 42018 - 1 to 4 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 1 yr 11 mo Shredding, Collecting for recycling, Stuffing envelopes Needed better support match 2019 - 4 2019 -$8.76 2017 - 1 to 42019 - 1 to 4 WI Dept Corrections 1 yr 2 mo Shredding NA 2020 - 10 2020 - $7.25 2019 - 1 to 62020 - 1 to 6 # 41SE - 1988CWS - 1988G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome Wendy’s Rest - E. Washington Ave 5 yr 8 mo Bussing tables, Toasting buns W desired a different job 1993 - 25 1993 -$3.80 1987 - 25 cks - wk1993 - 25 cks - wk WI School of Electronics 7 mo Collating, Labeling, Stuffing envelopes, W laid off 1994 - 25 1994 - $3.50 1993 - 20 cks - wk1994 - 20 cks - wk Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 26 yr Collecting for recycling, Collating, Stapling, Shredding, Destapling NA 2012 - 252020 - 26 2005 -$5.702020 - $9.02 1994 - 8 cks - wk2020 - 1 to 2 # 42SE - 1988CWS - 1988G - M Moderate ID, Down syndrome, Seizure disorder Wendy’s Rest - Dempsey St 5 yr 8 mo Simple food prep, Washing dishes, Toasting buns, Setting up salad bar Poor job match 1992 - 25 1992 -$3.80 1987 - 25 cks - wk1992 - 25 cks - wk WI Dept Regulation & Licensing 7 yr 11mo Shredding Fired - behavioral difficulties 2001 - 12.5 2001 - $4.27 1993 - 7 cks - wk2001 - 7 cks - wk Dane Co Public Health Nursing 11 yr Labeling, Stuffing envelopes, Stamping envelopes Business relocated 2004 - 12.5 2004 -$6.55 1993 - 1 to 52004 - 1 to 5 WI Dept Health Services 18 yr Shredding NA 2005 - 122020 - 5 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.55 2001 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 Dane Co Adult Community Services 15 yr 1 mo Shredding NA 2005 - 12.52020 - 5 2005 - $5.702020 -$8.76 2004 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 # 43SE - 1988CWS - 38G - M Moderate ID, Seizure disorder Midway Motor Lodge 2 yr 5 mo Cleaning hotel rooms Laid off - Hotel lost airline contract 1990 - 15 1990 - $3.65 1987 - 10 cks - wk1990 - 10 cks - wk Triggs Bakery 3 yr 10 mo Washing dishes W needed more challenging job & more social interactions 1991 - 9 1991 -$2.25 1987 - 9 cks - wk1991 - 9 cks - wk Pasquals Rest - Productions Facility 3 yr Washing dishes Business relocated 1993 - 12 1993 - $4.25 1990 - 8 cks - wk1993 - 8 cks - wk WKOW TV 22 yr Emptying garbage, Collecting paper & aluminum for recycling, Stocking supplies Fired - behavioral difficulties 2013 - 9 2005 -$5.202013 - $7.25 1991 - 1 ck - mo2013 - 1 ck - mo Ovens of Brittany Rest - Camelot Sq 2 yr 4 mo Washing dishes, Sweeping, Mopping Business closed 1995 - 15 1995 -$4.85 1993 - 6 cks - wk1995 - 6 cks - wk WI Dept Corrections 25 yr 2 mo Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes, Sorting forms, Shredding NA 2005 - 62020 - 6 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.25 1994 - 1 to 32020 - 1 to 3 Monty’s Diner 24 yr 5 mo Breaking down boxes, Delittering parking lot, Washing dishes, Sweeping, Stocking supplies, Washing shelves, Mopping NA 2005 - 152020 - 15 2005 - $5.702020 -$11.00 1995 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 4 yr 11 mo Shredding Needed less support 2019 - 4 2019 - $8.76 2014 - 1 to 52019 - 1 to 5 National Conference of Bar Examiners 7 mo Folding letters, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes NA 2020 - 4 2020 -$8.76 2019 - 1 ck - wk2020 - 1 ck - wk # 44SE - 1990CWS - 1990G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome WI Dept Corrections 10 yr 5 mo Labeling, Stamping envelopes, Destapling files for microfilming, Folding letters, Stuffing envelopes, Stapling, Alphabetizing Moved from Madison 2002 - 25 $5.15 1992 - 1 to 42002 - 1 to 4 Rocky Rococo Pizza - Monona Dr 3 yr 6 mo Washing dishes, Bussing tables W moved to job with more social interactions 1992 - 15$3.85 1988 - 1 ck - 1.5 hr1992 - 1 ck - 1.5 hr # 45SE - 1990CWS - 1990G - F Moderate ID, Down syndrome Hardee’s Rest - University Ave 2 yr 8 mo Making salads Poor job match 1991 - 9 1991 - $2.85 1989 - 18 cks - wk1991 - 18 cks - wk Video Station 24 yr 6 mo Dusting shelves, Shelving video tapes Business closed 2005 - 62014 - 6 2005 -$3.202014 - $3.20 1990 - 4 cks - wk2014 - 4 cks - wk WI Dept Transportation 28 yr 1 mo Alphabetizing, Assembling packets, Collating, Labeling, Separating forms, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes NA 2005 - 92020 - 6 2005 -$3.962020 - $8.00 1991 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 # 46SE - 1991CWS - 1991G - M Moderate ID, Autism Persoft 12 yr 11 mo Assembling software packets, Labeling diskettes Business relocated 2000 - 15 2000 -$5.15 1987 - 1 ck - mo2000 - 1 ck - mo WI Manufacturers & Commerce 28 yr 4 mo Assembling packets, Breaking down boxes, Delivering mail, Filing, Collecting for recycling, Shredding, Stocking soda coolers, Stocking supplies, Watering plants NA 2005 - 92020 - 9 2005 - $7.752020 -$11.21 1991 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Flad Architects 7 yr 9 mo Alphabetizing, Filing, Shelving library materials, Closing library materials on the computer Job became obsolete 2006 - 7 2005 - $8.062006 -$8.56 1998 - 1 ck - mo2006 - 1 ck - mo FAC Services 19 yr 5 mo Alphabetizing, Breaking down boxes, Filing, Shredding, Collecting for recycling, Stocking soda coolers, Stocking supplies, Mailing payroll checks NA 2005 - 82020 - 8 2005 - $8.062020 -$10.75 2000 - 1 ck - wk2020 - 1 ck - wk UBS Financial Services 18 yr 7 mo Filing NA 2005 - 6.52020 - 6.5 2005 - $6.502020 -$8.50 2001 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo WI Dept Transportation 2 yr 9 mo Filing, Photocopying Lack of work 2009 - 6 2009 - $6.55 2006 - 1 ck - wk2009 - 1 ck - wk Dane Co Sheriff 10 yr 9 mo Filing, Simple data entry, Photocopying, Scanning, Separating forms, Shredding NA 2020 - 6 2020 -$9.02 2009 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo Law Cntr for Children & Families 2 mo Alphabetizing, Data entry, Filing, Washing dishes NA 2020 - 3 2020 - $7.25 2019 - 1 ck - mo2020 - 1 ck - mo # 47SE - 2000CWS - 2000G - M Severe ID, Visual Impairment, Non-verbal, Physical disability WI DD Council 12 yr 10 mo Assembling packets, Collating, Delivering mail, Labeling, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes W laid off 2005 - 7.52009 - 7.5 2005 -$6.002009 - $7.25 1996 - 1 to 12009 - 1 to 1 Dane Co District Attorney 19 yr Collecting for shredding, Shredding NA 2005 - 82020 - 8 2005 -$5.702020 - $9.02 2001 - 1 to 12020 - 1 to 1 Movin’ Out 19 yr Assembling packets, Collating, Shredding, Scanning, Collecting for recycling NA 2005 - 52020 - 5 2005 -$10.002020 - $9.00 2001 - 1 to 12020 - 1 to 1 WI Bureau Developmental Disabilities 4 yr 11 mo Shredding Health difficulties 2006 - 2 2005 -$9.472006 - $10.00 2001 - 1 to 12006 - 1 to 1 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 7 yr 1 mo Collecting for recycling Increased hours at different job 2015 - 5 2015 -$7.25 2008 - 1 to 12015 - 1 to 1 # 48SE - 2000CWS - 2000G - M Moderate ID, Autism Concourse Hotel -Laundry 11 yr Folding laundry W quit 2005 - 17.52007 - 17.5 2005 - $6.142007 -$7.02 1996 - 1 ck - mo2007 - 1 ck - mo Sheraton Hotel - Laundry 12 yr 3 mo Folding laundry NA 2020 - 10 2020 - $11.76 2007 - 2 cks - mo2020 - 2 cks - mo # 49SE - 2000CWS - 2000G - M Moderate ID, Seizure disorder, Non-verbal Noodles & Co 5 yr 1 mo Bussing tables Poor job match 2003 - 12.5 2003 -$5.75 1998 - 12 cks - wk2003 - 12 cks - wk WI Commissioner of Insurance 19 yr 6 mo Collecting for recycling, Shredding NA 2005 - 92020 - 9 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.25 2000 - 1 to 42020 - 1 to 4 Dane Co Facilities Mgmt 4 yr 6 mo Collecting for recycling, Shredding Needed more support 2005 - 52008 - 5 2005 - $5.152008 -$7.25 2003 - 1 to 42008 - 1 to 4 Planned Parenthood 4 yr 3 mo Packaging condoms Moved to paid employment 2005 - 2.52008 - 2.5 2005 - Volunteer2008 - Volunteer 2004 - 1 to 32008 - 1 to 3 Nature’s Bakery Coop 15 yr 6 mo Labeling bags & boxes NA 2020 - 1.5 2005 - $5.702020 -$8.25 2004 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 TASC 11 yr 10 mo Stocking supplies, Cleaning kitchenettes, Making notepads, Filling copiers with paper NA 2020 - 4 2020 - $7.25 2008 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 Law Center for Children & Families 11 yr 8 mo Collecting for recycling, Shredding, Stocking soda coolers, Watering plants, Cleaning kitchenettes NA 2020 - 3 2020 -$7.25 2008 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 # 50SE - 2003CWS - 2003G - M Moderate ID, Non-verbal Border’s Books 8 yr 5 mo Dusting, Sensor stripping books, Shelving books, Unpacking books W laid off 2009 - 6 2005 - $7.422009 -$8.22 2000 - 1 ck - hr2009 - 1 ck - hr WI Bureau Children’s Services 16 yr 7 mo Assembling packets, Breaking down boxes, Collating, Simple data entry, Filing, Folding letters, Labeling, Collecting for recycling, Separating forms, Shredding, Stamping envelopes, Stuffing envelopes, Using cardboard compactor NA 2020 - 8 2005 - $5.702020 -$8.42 2003 - 1 ck - hr2020 - 1 ck - hr WI Dept Corrections 16 yr 6 mo Alphabetizing, Assembling packets, Collating, Delivering mail, Filing, Labeling, Folding letters, Separating forms, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes, Stamping envelopes NA 2020 - 6 2005 - $5.702020 -$7.25 2003 - 1 to 52020 - 1 to 5 WI Dept Transportation 10 yr 8 mo Alphabetizing, Assembling packets, Collating, Simple data entry, Filing, Labeling, Collecting for recycling, Separating forms, Shredding, Stuffing envelopes, Stamping envelopes NA 2020 - 4 2020 - $8.00 2009 - 1 to 22020 - 1 to 2 ##### Table 2 contains information pertaining to: B - the mobility of each W in 2005 and in 2020 or when he/she retired, stopped working, moved or died; C - how each W traveled to and from work in 2005 and in 2020 or when she/he retired, stopped working, moved or died; D – the lunch supports provided by JC; E - the hours (hrs) per week (wk) each W spent in Community - Recreation activities during work days in 2005 and un 2020 or when he/she retired, stopped working, moved or died; F - the kind of residence in which each W lived in 2005 and in 2020 or when he/she retired, stopped working, moved or died; and, G - the amount of time each W was out of residence during work days in 2005 and in 2020 or when he/she retired, stopped working, moved or died  A B C D E F G W Mobility Transportation Lunch supports Comm rec Residence Hrs out of res 2005 2020 2005 2020 2005 2020 2005 2020 2005 2020 2005 2020 #1 Walk Walk City bus Spec van None None None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 32 15 #2 Walk Walker Res staff Res staff Yes Yes None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 32.5 31 #3 Walk Walk City bus Spec van None None None None Apt -nearby Apt - come in&Elec Mon 27 17 #4 Walk Whlchr City bus Spec van None Yes None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 36 26 #5 Walk Walk City bus Spec van None None None None Apt -nearby Apt - come in 37.5 18 #6 Walk NA City bus NA None NA None NA Apt -nearby NA 35 NA #7 Walk Walk Parent Parent Yes Yes 3 3 Parent Parent 27 23.5 #8 Walk Walk City bus & Parent City bus & Parent None None None None Parent Parent 25 14 #9 Walk Whlchr Spec van Spec van Yes Yes None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 32.5 10 #10 Walker Whlchr Spec van Spec van Yes Yes None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 12 29 #11 Walk Walk Walking Spec van None None None None Apt - nearby Apt - come in&Elec Mon 26.25 14.5 #12 Walk Whlchr Spec van Spec van & JC Yes Yes 5 None Apt - live in Apt - live in 35 5 #13 Whlchr Whlchr Spec van Spec van Yes Yes None None Parent Parent 28 23 #14 Walk Walk City bus City bus None None None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 31.25 35 #15 Whlchr Whlchr Spec van Spec van None None None None Apt - live in Apt - come in & Elec Mon 20 4 #16 Walk Walk Spec van & JC Spec van & JC Yes None None None Apt – nearby NA 36.5 NA #17 Walker Whlchr Spec van Spec van Yes Yes 5 2.5 Apt -Live in Group Home 40 34 #18 Walk Walk w/Assist Spec van & JC Spec van & JC Yes Yes 3 None Apt - nearby Apt - live in 18 5 #19 Walk Walk Parent Spec van None None None None Parent Sibling 16 14 #20 Walk Whlchr Spec van Spec van Yes Yes 5 None Apt - live in Apt - live in 35 NA #21 Walk Walk City bus Res staff& JC Yes Yes 6 6 Apt - live in Apt - live in 40 35 #22 Walk Walker City bus & Spec van Spec van None None None None Apt - nearby Nursing Home 36.5 15 #23 Walk Walk Spec van Spec van Yes Yes 5 5 Parent Parent 35 35 #24 Walk Walk Spec van NA Yes NA 5 NA UKN NA UKN NA #25 Walk Walk Spec van Spec van & JC Yes Yes 5 5 Apt - live in Apt - live in 37.5 31.5 #26 Whlchr Whlchr City bus & Spec van Spec van Yes None None None Apt - live in Group Home 34.5 25 #27 Walk Walk City bus & JC City bus & JC Yes Yes None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 37.5 32.5 #28 Walk Walk Spec van Spec van Yes Yes 6 6 Apt - live in Apt - live in 35 32.5 #29 Walk Walk Spec van Spec van Yes Yes 5 5 Adult Fam Adult Fam Home 35 35.5 #30 Walk Walk Spec van & JC Spec van & JC Yes Yes None None Apt - live in Group Home 35 32 #31 Walk Walk Spec van Spec van & JC Yes Yes None None Parents Apt - live in 23 19 #32 Walker NA Spec van NA None NA None NA Parents NA UKN NA #33 Walk Walk Spec van & JC Spec van & JC Yes Yes 3 7 Apt - live in Apt - live in 33.5 34 #34 Walk Walk Spec van & JC Spec van & JC Yes Yes 2.5 2.5 Apt -nearby Apt - live in 35 35 #35 Walk Walk City bus & Bike City bus & Bike None None None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 35 25 #36 Walk Walk Spec van Spec van None None None None Apt -nearby Apt - come in 8.5 17.5 #37 Walk Walk Spec van & City bus & JC Spec van & JC Yes Yes 5 6 Apt - nearby Apt - nearby 40 35 #38 Walk Walk Spec van & JC Spec van & JC Yes Yes None None Adult Fam Home Adult Fam Home 28 21.5 #39 Walk Walk Parent Parent & Spec van None None None None Parent Parent 21 23.5 #40 Walk Walk City Bus Spec van & JC None Yes None None Adult Fam Apt - come in Home 45.5 35 #41 Walk Walk Spec Van Spec van & JC None Yes None 2.5 Adult Fam Home Adult Fam Home 35 35 #42 Walk Walk Res staff & City bus Res Staff & Spec van & JC Yes Yes None None Apt - nearby Condo - come in&Elec Mon 35 28 #43 Walk Walk City bus City bus None None None 2.5 Parent Parent 40 26 #44 Walk NA City Bus NA Yes NA 5 NA Parent NA UKN NA #45 Walk Walk City bus Spec van None None 3 6 Apt - nearby Apt - live in 25.5 17 #46 Walk Walk City bus City bus None None None None Parent Parent 40.5 39 #47 Whlchr Whlchr Spec van Spec van Yes Yes None None Apt - live in Apt - live in 36.25 28 #48 Walk Walk City bus City bus None None None None Sibling Sibling 22.5 20 #49 Walk Walk Spec Van Spec van Yes Yes 5 None Apt - live in Apt - live in 36.5 29 #50 Walk Walk City bus & Spec van Spec van None None None None Parent Parent 36.5 32 Confidentiality procedures were approved by the workers through their parents or guardians, as well as the Executive Director, the Program Director and the CWS Board of Directors. Numbers and pseudonyms rather than actual names were used. ### 2.1The workers In 2005 CWS served 70 workers. Forty had received instruction in integrated work and related environments while they attended MMSD schools and were served by CWS at school exit. Seven exited the MMSD before CWS was established. They had received instruction in integrated work and related environments while they attended school and were served by local agencies at school exit. They moved to CWS because their parents and/or their Dane County Case Managers requested they do so. Three did not attend MMSD schools and did not receive instruction in integrated work and related environments while they attended schools in Dane County. They were referred to CWS because of the preferences of their parents or Dane County Case Managers. Nine were long term residents of state operated institutions for the Developmentally Disabled. When they were relocated to residential settings in Madison, Case Managers referred them to CWS, who then arranged for them to function in integrated work settings. Eleven had been functioning in activity centers or a local sheltered workshop. Their parents or Case Managers requested they be served by CWS. When the 2006 study was designed, the authors decided to focus on all 47 individuals who had received instruction in integrated work and related environments during their school careers. The three who attended three high schools in Dane County, but did not receive instruction in integrated work and related environments, were selected because they had recently exited or were in the process of exiting school, they functioned in the same range as the other 47 selected and they allowed the preferred sample size of 50. Demographic and diagnostic information is presented in Table 1 - Columns A and B. The 50 workers include 21 females. Forty five were Caucasians, three were African Americans, one was Latino and one was Asian American. Forty were reported as having “moderate” intellectual disabilities; nine as having “severe” intellectual disabilities; and one, who had significant cerebral palsy, was “estimated” to have “mild” intellectual disabilities. Twenty one had Down syndrome, ten of those were female. Thirteen were nonverbal, four had seizure disorders, five had hearing impairments, five had vision impairments, five had long term significant physical disabilities, seven had Cerebral Palsy, five had Alzheimer disease and two had significant Arthritis. Seven others had one of the following: Diabetes, Dementia, Schizophrenia, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Microcephaly, Heart Disease or Prader-Willi Syndrome. All 50 functioned intellectually and otherwise among the lowest approximately 1% of a naturally distributed general population. All experienced communication, intellectual, social, physical, behavioral, sensorimotor and/or other disabilities in kinds and degrees reasonable persons would consider significantly disabling. All needed substantial long term assistance in almost all activities of daily living. All but one had been ascribed standardized, adapted and/or “estimated” intelligence test scores of approximately 50 or below. While in school none of the workers performed well, if at all, on standardized tests of any kind. None was successful in academic curricula. All looked or behaved in ways that called immediate attention to their difficulties. All were judged eligible for long term vocational support by Dane County officials and all were eligible for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and/or Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Other than family members few others interacted with them. Thus, it was relatively easy to think they could not learn or do much. As will be obvious from the data that follow, those who thought so were wrong. ### 2.2Integrated work environments When the possibility of integrated work was first proposed, most who were aware of the physical, intellectual and behavioral characteristics of the students and the histories of their predecessors were incredulous. Where could THEY work? Who would hire THEM? TERRIBLE things will happen to them. They will do TERRIBLE things there. Thus, it was incumbent on those who proposed the possibility to generate the needed environments. Many of the integrated work site development strategies utilized are reported in Brown & Kessler (2014). The policies and practices of CWS are to constantly generate new and different integrated work environments because workers leave, businesses move, close or reduce work forces and many jobs become obsolete due to technological advances. A large integrated work environment has three major characteristics. First, it is naturally proportioned. That is, no more than one or two of those who work in it should be significantly disabled intellectually because no more than 1% of the general population can be so described. Consider a bank that employs 100 individuals. To be naturally proportioned, no more than one or two of those who work therein can be significantly disabled intellectually. Second, no more than two individuals with obvious disabilities can work at the same time in an immediate work environment. Third, a worker with significant intellectual disabilities must work within sight, sound and touch of coworkers without disabilities. This is to facilitate appropriate natural supervision, the development of social relationships and safety. Historically, all the environments in which CWS workers functioned met these criteria. Severe budget reductions forced the utilization of three settings that contained more than two workers each. Table 1 - Column C contains a listing of the integrated work environments in which the 50 workers functioned from school exit to 2020 or until they died, retired, stopped working or left Madison. Workers #1 through #7 functioned in integrated work environments prior to school exit and were maintained therein by other vocational agencies until CWS started providing them support services in 1984. When a work environment is considered only once, the 50 workers functioned in over 160. In many instances, more than one worker functioned in a particular environment. The names of some environments changed over time. In such instances, the most recent name was used for all. There were substantial changes in the kinds of environments utilized over time. In 1986, 20 food service and 22 office environments were utilized by the 40 workers served at that time. In 2006, the same 40 workers functioned in only six food service settings, but in 47 office environments. In 2020, the 36 remaining workers functioned in 53 office and only four food service environments. Several workers functioned in more than one office setting. More office environments were utilized for several important reasons. First, offices often have lower turnover rates than those of food service settings. This allows for the frequent contacts and common experiences over extended periods of time which are so necessary for the development of meaningful social and supportive relationships with coworkers without disabilities. Second, some parents preferred office environments because they perceived them as having higher status and as being more intellectually challenging. Third, many office tasks are less physically and otherwise demanding than those required in food service environments. Fourth, Madison contains an unusually large number of city, county, state, federal, university and private sector offices. Fifth, public busses and the central locations, accessibility and the close proximity of many office buildings allowed for the efficient movement and stationing of workers and Job Coaches. Many workers functioned in two or more work environments in a day or week, primarily for the following reasons. At times one environment did not provide the variety of tasks that would maintain interest, willingness to perform and physical well-being. Multiple environments provided more opportunities for the preferred amounts and kinds of social relationships with coworkers without disabilities. A reasonable balance between active and sedentary tasks across a day or week sometimes was not available in one setting. There was an insufficient amount of work in one setting. Workers who presented significant social and behavioral challenges were often more readily accepted or tolerated if they functioned in a setting less than a full day or week. If a worker functioned in two settings and lost access to one, it was usually less disruptive and easier to arrange another part time rather than a full time setting. A setting may have required skills that were in the repertoire of a worker during some, but not all, parts of the work day or week. The amount of time each worker functioned in each environment is presented in Table 1 - Column D. The total amount of time the 50 workers spent in integrated work environments was over 579 years. Individual amounts of time ranged from two months to 42 years. The average amount of time spent in a work environment was 11.5 years. The “Where can THEY work?” and the “Who would hire THEM?” questions have been answered. They can and in fact do work in banks, hospitals, restaurants, research laboratories, radio stations, fire departments, police departments, crime laboratories, offices, taxi cab companies, law firms, architect companies, construction companies and in many other integrated environments. Those who predicted employers would not open their doors to workers with significant intellectual disabilities were wrong. The over 100 employers reported here and at least 100 others in Dane County, WI who did so are the evidence. Also, the “They will do TERRIBLE things there” and “TERRIBLE things will happen to them” predictions have not been realized. Not one worker was sexually or otherwise abused. Not one sexually or otherwise abused others. Not one was arrested. Not one became pregnant. Not one has been injured seriously at work. Not one has been lost or otherwise harmed while under the supervision of CWS personnel. ### 2.3Work tasks In the 1970’s when permission to bring the students to integrated work sites was requested from parents and school officials, many were astounded and asked “What can THEY do there?” Thus, it was incumbent upon those who generated the sites to determine the real work tasks that might be learned and performed. Many of the strategies utilized to do so are reported in Brown, Kessler, & Toson (2016). A “real job” refers to the entire range of work tasks a worker without disabilities must perform acceptably in order for an employer to hire or continue to employ her/him at least the minimum wage. Many work tasks required of coworkers without disabilities were too difficult for the workers. Answering telephones, using computers, reading, understanding complex language and verbally assisting customers are examples. In addition, many workers manifested attendance rates and/or physical and behavioral difficulties and response rates that would have been tolerated by few employers, if they were not disabled. In short, none of the 50 workers could successfully complete all the work tasks required of any coworker without disabilities. However, each worker could perform one or more of the work tasks of any coworker without disabilities. If a worker with disabilities does not complete a work task in accordance with the minimally acceptable standards of an employer, and as a consequence a coworker without disabilities must be paid to do so, it is considered a real work task. No business can succeed if it is dependent only upon the productivity of workers with the kinds and degrees of disabilities operative here. With the possible exception of a few volunteer experiences, all workers performed real work tasks in accordance with this definition. In some instances, a worker could complete some tasks in the same manner as coworkers who were not disabled. In others, she/he could do so only if individualized adaptations were utilized. An adaptation refers to something that is added to or changed in the setting that allows a worker with disabilities to function in accordance with the minimally acceptable standards of an employer. These adaptations are not needed by coworkers without disabilities. Some adaptations such as paper folding devices, color coded mail folders and pictures of performance sequences are relatively simple and inexpensive. Others are quite complex and costly. Opportunities to learn and perform a wide array of different and more or less complex tasks were continuously available. From 1984 to 2020, the 50 workers performed well over 150 real work tasks which are delineated in Table 1 - Column E. The question “What can THEY do there?” has been answered. Workers with significant intellectual disabilities can and are successfully completing hundreds of real work tasks. Those they perform allow their more able coworkers to complete more complex and valuable tasks. ### 2.4Reasons for changes in environments and tasks The number of work environments in which an individual worker functioned ranged from 1 to 12. The average was six. The major reasons for changes in environments and tasks are presented in Table 1 - Column F. Changes were made primarily to enhance opportunities for and to engender better job matches. For example, changes were made because the array of tasks was or became too limited, complex or simple. In some instances, an environment and its requirements were a good match at one point, but became less so over time. Deteriorating physical and intellectual functioning were most often the reasons. At times, a different environment offered better opportunities for social interactions with coworkers without disabilities and more natural supports. Natural support refers to assistance provided by coworkers without disabilities that does not interfere with their productivity or the enjoyment of their jobs. To move a worker from nonpaid to paid employment or to use a site closer to a residence so as to reduce travel time, cost and support requirements and when a worker became disinterested in an environment or tasks or otherwise indicated discontent required changes. “Indicating” a change is wanted took different forms, but was rarely verbal. Obvious declines in performance, exhibiting disruptive behaviors and refusing to go to work are examples. When a worker was fired, laid off or otherwise terminated, the major reasons were unacceptable social or behavioral actions, excessive absenteeism and poor work quality. Social or behavioral actions that warranted dismissal included mild aggression toward others, inappropriate demands for attention that interfered with the functioning of coworkers and supervisors and stealing. Pens, coffee cups, post it notes and snack foods were the items taken most frequently. Money was rarely taken, but was not tolerated when it was. In most instances a worker was not terminated until several problematic actions were expressed. Finally, if a Job Coach sensed that coworkers, supervisors or employers were becoming increasingly uncomfortable, preemptive changes were often made. Layoffs resulted from declines in business, work tasks being phased out or becoming obsolete, work being assumed by fulltime employees and there being an insufficient amount of work available. From 1984 to 2020, 36 years, CWS never moved a worker from an integrated to a segregated work environment. When changes were necessary, they were moved to other integrated environments after short periods of time. ### 2.5Hours worked per week The hours each worker worked per week are presented in Table 1 – Column G. Generally, workers were the responsibility of CWS from 8:00 A.M. to 3:00 PM, Mondays through Fridays. This encompasses time spent working, in lunches, traveling to and from workplaces and participation in Community and Recreation activities. In 2005, the number of hours per week 50 workers spent working ranged from six to 30.5. The average was 20.15. In 2020, the number of hours per week the 46 workers spent working ranged from eight to 26. The average was 14. From 1984 to 2020, 18 worked about the same number of hours per week, seven worked more and 25 worked fewer. This is noteworthy because as the workers aged, stamina and more serious intellectual, physical care, mobility and other difficulties quite often reduced functioning levels and required that more time and energy be devoted to non work activities. The major reasons for changes in hours worked per week over time are as follows. Employers requested fewer hours, primarily because of the lack of available work. Workers, parents or support teams desired more or fewer hours. Changes were made so CWS could provide needed supports. Health, intellectual and/or behavioral problems often led to fewer hours. There was or became a less than acceptable match between a worker and an environment. The worker seemed uninterested or otherwise communicated a choice for a new task or environment. The task became obsolete, primarily because of technological innovations. ### 2.6Wages Wages earned from 1984 to 2020 are presented in Table 1 - Column H. In 2005, the WI legal minimum hourly wage for private sector employees was$5.70. The prevailing city, county and state wages per hour in the Madison area for entry level positions was approximately $9.00. The hourly wage of the workers in, or prior to, 2005, ranged from$3.20 to $10.00. The average was$5.76. In 2020, the WI legal minimum hourly wage for private sector employees was $7.25. The prevailing city, county and state hourly wage in the Madison area for entry level positions was approximately$11.00. The hourly wage range of 46 workers from 2006 to 2020 was from $6.00 to$11.76. The average wage per hour was \$7.96.

None of the workers ever worked 40 hours per week. Because of the part time nature of their work, only a few received medical or other benefits through employers. No worker could live on the wages she/he earned. The ranges and amounts of work produced were almost always less than those of coworkers without disabilities. The productivity of all workers was documented empirically by CWS personnel. Some employers were eligible for deviated wage certificates that allowed subminimum wages commensurate with productivity. However, from 2017 to 2020, no worker was paid a subminimum wage.

Only one of the 50 workers made about the same total amount of money over time. Eleven made less total amount of money over time. Thirty eight made more total amount of money over time. Increases in the legal minimum and prevailing wages accounted for most of the increases in the total amounts of monies earned over time. However, some workers made more money per hour, but worked fewer hours. Thus, they earned less total money. As the workers aged, many had to reduce the hours they worked because of health, stamina and related conditions and their incomes decreased.

A worker was considered a nonpaid volunteer if she/he or his/her support team had reasonable knowledge about, and agreed to perform, the required tasks and if the setting was legally used by others without disabilities as volunteers. In 2005, seven workers functioned as volunteers. Each also had paid employment in other settings. From 2006 to 2020 or until a worker died, retired, stopped working or left Madison, 18 functioned as volunteers. In 2020, only six did so. They also had paid employment in other settings.

Volunteer arrangements were utilized primarily for the following reasons. First, the physical, social, logistical and other benefits of volunteering were deemed more important than the amounts of money that could be earned elsewhere. Second, as the competence and productivity of some workers increased, so did their earnings. CWS personnel and parents/guardians took the steps necessary to make sure that wages did not negatively impact SSI/SSDI benefits. Third, some workers or their support teams realized more money could be earned elsewhere, but clearly preferred for personal fulfillment reasons to function as volunteers. A worker who loved music clearly preferred to volunteer at a radio station and a worker who loved to visit family members and friends at a hospital and clearly preferred to function therein as a volunteer are examples. Fourth, it was important that workers function outside their residences reasonable amounts of time per week. Sometimes the only or the best way to generate out of residence time was to arrange for volunteer experiences. Fifth, volunteer arrangements were used in emergencies. In cases of health crises and recoveries, terminations and layoffs are examples. Sixth, volunteer experiences offer good opportunities to learn important skills and attitudes. These opportunities sometimes led to paid employment. For example, one worker functioned in a fire station as a volunteer. After he learned to complete work tasks successfully, the firefighters utilized monies from their charitable trust to pay him.

### 2.7Job coach support

Extra support refers to the amounts and kinds of assistance a Job Coach provides that would not be needed if a worker was not disabled. None of the workers could have been successful in a workplace without the comprehensive and sustained extra assistance of Job Coaches. The amounts of support provided individual workers are reported in Table 1 - Column I. They ranged from onsite spot checks of approximately 15 minutes to continuous supervision as long as a worker functioned in a workplace.

Most of the support provided by Job Coaches included the following.

• Providing direct and systematic instruction.

• Verifying that work tasks were completed acceptably and that negotiated routines and schedules were followed.

• Motivating and encouraging workers.

• Assisting coworkers, employers and supervisors setting up workers with assigned tasks.

• Monitoring behavioral challenges and following through with agreed upon interventions.

• Monitoring dress and grooming requirements.

• Assisting with personal care.

• Programming and improving augmentative communication devices.

• Monitoring, evaluating and improving the effectiveness of individualized adaptations.

• Setting timers and alarms that indicated work breaks and moves to another worksite.

• Gathering evaluative information from employers and coworkers about worker performance and responding constructively.

• Assisting during transitions to and from worksites, lunchrooms and transportation points.

• Responding appropriately to extraordinary situations such as medical and behavioral emergencies.

Job Coaches were taught and encouraged to be sociable, accessible and approachable. They were also encouraged to provide non confidential but relevant information about a worker’s interests, abilities and communication styles as ways of facilitating and increasing opportunities for social interactions. When Job Coaches initiated social contacts on behalf of a worker, coworkers were generally happy to be approached. Often, they did not realize that becoming involved with a worker in social activities within or outside the workplace was appropriate and preferred. After initial contacts and connections were made by Job Coaches, coworkers often continued and expanded them with minimal support. In a few instances meaningful social relationships developed quickly and with relative ease. However, it was quite common for them to develop gradually. One particularly helpful maneuver was for Job Coaches to model desired social interactions. For example, for two years a Job Coach brought cake and gifts to the office to celebrate the birthday of a worker. In the third year, coworkers organized his birthday party without the involvement of the Job Coach.

As many wonderful social relationships developed, it became apparent that the workers seemed to be receiving much more than they were giving. Thus, with the assistance of Job Coaches, workers began acknowledging the birthdays of coworkers and employers, inquiring about vacations, sending get well cards and making other gestures common in reciprocal relationships. After initiating more “giving” actions, the workers became even more socially connected to coworkers and employers. Oftentimes the excitement and novelty of work settings and tasks fade. It was quite common that social relationships with coworkers produced enduring satisfaction and sustained productivity.

In 2020 CWS served 79 workers with the equivalent of 17 full time Job Coaches. From a budgetary perspective, this could be interpreted as a support ratio of approximately 1 to 4.6. However, from a program operations perspective, this is not an appropriate conceptualization. Specifically, in some instances a Job Coach was responsible for a fixed number of workers. However, illness, injuries, training, vacations and other factors resulted in her/him being unavailable. The Executive Director, the Program Director and other Job Coaches then provided the needed support. Job Coaches continuously strived for safe, cost efficient and otherwise individually meaningful balances between too much and too little support. Some workers functioned quite well in high ratio support arrangements because of their personal care, social, behavioral, travel and work repertoires. Others functioned quite well in high ratio arrangements during work times, but needed lower ratio arrangements during relatively unstructured lunches, when traveling and in Community and Recreation activities because of safety concerns, mobility problems, personal care needs and behavioral challenges. If work tasks were within the lower end of the difficulty range of a worker and were being performed acceptably, the support required to ensure acceptable work quality was minimal. When a worker was learning new or more complex tasks, increases in support were always necessary. One day a worker could have been functioning quite well with weekly or monthly spot checks. However, the next day, for health, behavioral, instructional or other important reasons, she/he may have needed extra support for the entire time she/he was working. As the workers aged, deteriorating mental, physical, health, personal care, rate range and other skills required increasing amounts and kinds of support. A worker may have functioned quite well with only a few spot checks in a particular environment mornings. This allowed a Job Coach to serve others in other environments and thus increases the support ratio. However, the same worker may have functioned in a different environment afternoons with another worker who needed substantially more support. This lowered the support ratio. In some instances, budget reductions affected worker pairings. For example, one worker was functioning quite well with weekly spot checks. Another worker was having serious difficulties in another setting and needed constant support. CWS considered many factors and decided to pair the two. In sum, professional support had to be individualized, flexible and responsive to constantly changing circumstances. In Table 1 - Column I the support arrangements are reported. They are categorized as follows.

• 1 to 1 or 1 to 2. In these arrangements a Job Coach was in the same physical space, in sight of and/or in close proximity to one or two workers almost 100% of the time. Constant and close presence was deemed necessary to: maintain concentration on tasks and productivity; address seizure disorders and other health concerns; honor court orders; address strong parent preferences; manage behavioral challenges; minimize interference with the productivity and enjoyment of others; and, attenuate safety risks.

• 1 to 3, 4, 5, or 6. In these arrangements Job Coaches were approximately five minutes away from the three to six workers for whom they were responsible. For these arrangements to be operative and yet to honor the criteria of an integrated work environment, settings that were in relatively close temporal and spatial proximity were used. For example, five workers functioned in four separate areas of a large government office building. This allowed a Job Coach to check each every 15 to 20 minutes. When necessary, supervisors and coworkers without disabilities used cell phones and pagers to contact Job Coaches who were rarely more than five minutes away.

• Daily checks. In this arrangement Job Coaches typically checked workers at least once per day. However, depending on support needs, a worker was checked once in 30 minutes to once in four hours. The typical routine of a Job Coach was to rotate across workers throughout a morning or afternoon. Because some workers functioned acceptably with less assistance than others, their work environments were more dispersed. However, a Job Coach was rarely more than 15 to 20 minutes away.

• Weekly and monthly spot checks. In this arrangement workers were checked by a Job Coach one to three times per week or month. Typically, a check lasted from five to 30 minutes.

Remarkably, the kinds and amounts of Job Coach Supports provided 25 of the 50 workers remained about the same over their careers. Only three of the 50 workers had decreased extra supports provided over their careers. As the workers aged, health and related difficulties took their toll. Thus, the extra supports provided 22 of the 50 workers increased over time. These increases, of course, lowered support ratios and increased budgetary difficulties.

### 2.8Mobility

How the 50 workers ambulated in 2020 or when they died, moved from Madison, retired or stopped working is reported in Table 2 - Column B. Before 2005, 43 of the 50 workers walked without the personal assistance of others, three used walkers and four used wheelchairs. By 2020, 33 of the remaining 46 walked. One walked, but only with the personal assistance of others, two used walkers and ten used wheelchairs. These declines in mobility skills had important, pervasive and in some cases dramatic effects on virtually all aspects of daily living. Of particular importance is they often decreased time working, increased time in residences and increased time not working but out of residences. They also lowered worker to Job Coach ratios and thus increased costs. Obviously, the decreases in mobility skills reported here are no different than those experienced by individuals without significant intellectual disabilities. However, individuals without disabilities typically experience the kinds and degrees of difficulties reported here 15 to 20 years later in life.

### 2.9Transportation

How the 50 workers traveled to and from work from 1984 to 2005 or when they died or left Madison is reported in Table 2 - Column C. Specifically, from 1984 to 2005, 13 used city busses, 18 used special vans, six used special vans and Job Coaches, three used city busses and special vans and three used parents. One each walked, used city busses and Job Coaches, city busses and parents, residence personnel, city busses and a bicycle, residence personnel and city busses, and Job Coaches, special vans and city busses.

From 2006 to 2020, 22 of 46 workers traveled to and from work in special vans, 12 were transported by Job Coaches and special vans and four used city busses. One each was transported by parents, parents and special vans, parents and city busses, city busses and Job Coaches, residence personnel, city busses and a bicycle, residence personnel, city busses and Job Coaches, and special vans and city busses.

As the workers aged, major changes in transportation to and from work were necessary. In 2005, 13 of the workers used city busses exclusively. In 2020 only four did so. In 2005, 18 workers used special vans exclusively. In 2020, 22 did so. In 2005, six workers used special vans and Job Coaches. In 2020, 12 did so. In 2005 three parents transported their children to and from work. In 2020 only one did so. The major reasons for using other than typical transportation modes were: safety, mobility difficulties, weather, accessibility, health and seizure disorders.

The changes in transportation modes required more time from Job Coaches and CWS leadership personnel and substantial tolerance, understanding and cooperation from parents, guardians, coworkers, employers and residential personnel. They also forced reductions in worker to Job Coach ratios and thus increased costs.

### 2.10Lunch

Lunch time was from approximately 11:30 AM to 12:30 PM. Lunch times were often longer than those of coworkers without disabilities because more time was needed for mobility, purchasing food, cutting up food, opening packaged items, drinking, eating, personal care and cleaning up (Table 2 - Column D). Some lunched with coworkers without disabilities and some did so with peers with disabilities and/or Job Coaches. Some workers needed little or no extra support during lunches throughout their careers. However, many required increasing kinds and amounts of extra support as time passed.

Between 2006 and 2020 or when a worker retired, died, stopped working or left Madison, more workers needed assistance and more needed more significant assistance. Some expressed behavioral difficulties in relatively unstructured lunch periods. In such instances a Job Coach ate with from two to five workers in the same location. This was an unfortunate violation of natural proportions. It was done because the personnel needed to supervise low ratio lunch arrangements could not be afforded.

### 2.11Community and recreation activities

Between 1984 and 2005, or before two workers died and two left Madison, 16 of the 50 workers spent from 2.5 to six hours per week in Community and Recreation activities during work days and times with a Job Coach in groups of two or three (Table 2 - Column E). The average was 4.5 hours per week. The activities in which they engaged included swimming, shopping, using public libraries, going to the zoo and museums, visiting a bakery, playing mini golf and bowling.

Between 2006 and 2020 or before they died, retired, stopped working or left Madison, 14 of the remaining 46 workers engaged in Community and Recreation activities during portions of their work weeks. The hours per week ranged from 2.5 to seven. The average was four.

The workers engaged in Community and Recreation activities during work days and times for several reasons. It was important that most workers be out of their residences between approximately 8:00 A.M. and 3:00 PM. In some instances, appropriate work experiences could not be arranged for the needed amounts of time. Behavioral difficulties and limited stamina disallowed full days at work. In some lives, Community and Recreation experiences during non work days and times were too few or nonexistent. Support teams judged that involvement in fun and healthy alternatives were needed. Weight, stamina and fitness difficulties encouraged engagement in generally healthy Community and Recreation activities. In a few instances Community and Recreation activities were used as incentives; e g., “When I work, I get money to shop, eat at a restaurant.”

### 2.12Residences

Table 2 - Column F contains information about the type of residences from 1984 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2020 or when a worker died, stopped working, retired or left Madison.

None of the 50 workers was intellectually, physically or otherwise capable of living “independently”. That is, without comprehensive extra support provided by individuals without disabilities. Residential support services included, but were not limited to, providing assistance in the areas of hygiene, food purchasing and meal preparation, dressing, laundering, personal maintenance, traveling and medication, schedule and money management.

From 1984 to 2005 or when a worker died or left Madison, 20 of the 50 lived in apartments with live - in support. That is, they lived with no more than one other person with disabilities and a person without disabilities who was paid to live with them. Twelve lived in apartments with nearby support. An apartment with nearby support refers to one in which one or two individuals with disabilities reside. Support services are provided by paid persons without disabilities who lived close to the apartments. In some instances, those persons lived in apartments in the same buildings as the workers. Twelve lived with their parents. Four lived in three different adult family homes. An adult family home is essentially a foster home for adults. One lived with a sibling. It was unknown where one worker lived. From 2006 to 2020 or when a worker died, retired, left Madison or stopped working, 20 of the 50 lived in apartments with live - in support, one lived in an apartment with nearby support and three lived in apartments with come - in support. An apartment with come - in support refers to one in which one or two individuals with disabilities reside. Support services are provided by paid persons without disabilities as needed. Those who provide the services do not necessarily live near the apartment. Three lived in apartments with come - in support plus electronic monitoring. This monitoring included, but was not limited to, alarms on doors and bedside floor mats which detected movements, emergencies and other potentially dangerous situations. One lived in his/her condominium with come - in support plus electronic monitoring. Eight lived with parents. Three lived in two adult family homes. Two lived with siblings. Three lived in group homes. A group home refers to an apartment or house with more than two unrelated persons with disabilities. One lived in a nursing home. Two of the 50 moved from Madison prior to 2005 and one moved between 2005 and 2020. Their residential status is unknown.

The average number of hours per week 46 of the 50 workers spent out of residences during work days and times in 2005 or when they died or left Madison was 32.2 (Table 2 - Column G). The average number of hours per week 45 of the 50 workers spent out of residences during work days and times in 2020 or when they died, retired, stopped working or left Madison was 25. The amount of time five workers spent out of residence is unknown. In many instances, the workers spent fewer hours per day out of their residences as they aged. The major reasons for this were stamina, illness and the choice of a worker, a parent and/or a support team.

### 2.13Familial succession/mortality

Two people produce a child and thus become parents. Culturally, biologically and otherwise they have responsibilities for the wellbeing of their offspring. Their child then becomes a parent. She has responsibilities for both her children and her parents, who are now grandparents. The generally expected order of familial succession is that grandparents will die first, followed by parents and then by their children. War, pestilence, famine, accidents, drought, sexual preferences, etc. have always been departures from this order. Individuals with significant intellectual disabilities have also been departures for two major reasons. First, they rarely produced children. Indeed, none of the 50 workers did so. Second, until recently most died before their parents and in many instances before their grandparents. The average life expectancy of children with Down syndrome in the USA in 1929 was approximately 9 years. Chances are great that such relatively short lives were typical of others with significantly disabling conditions. In 2020, the National Down Syndrome Society estimated that the life expectancy of individuals with Down syndrome to be in the 50 to 60 year range. Chances are great that such enhanced life expectancies are typical of others with significantly disabling conditions. In sum, individuals with significant intellectual disabilities are now participants in the natural order of familial succession, but they cannot survive or thrive without substantial, comprehensive and long term extra support. This presents major problems to families, taxpayers and communities (Brown & Knollman, 2011).

In 2020, the ages of 44 of the original 50 workers ranged from 34 to 60. The average age was 53. This includes the 8 who died. Information about the mortality of 6 workers in unknown. From 1984 to early 2020, five of the workers who did not die, stop working or leave the Madison area retired from work. One retired at age 42 and died at 46, one retired at 48 and died at 51 and one retired at 56 and died at 57. Two retired at ages 50 & 53. Their mortality information in 2020 was unknown. The average age at retirement was 50. Poor and declining health were the primary reasons. From 1984 to early 2020, four exited the Madison area at ages 33, 35, 41 & 53. Information about their mortality status in 2020 was unknown. Three workers stopped coming to work because of deteriorating health. One remained on CWS rolls until he died. Another remained on CWS rolls for several months in the hope he would return to work. He did not do so by 2020. One was involved in a serious accident independent of work. His sibling decided he would not return to CWS.

From 1984 to early 2020, eight workers died. Their ages at death were; 34, 38, 46, 47, 51, 52, 54 & 57. One, who had Cornelia deLange Syndrome, choked to death in his residence at age 47 and one, with significant Cerebral Palsy, died for unknown reasons at age 52. Twenty one of the 50 workers had Down syndrome. Ten were female. Six of the eight who died also had Down syndrome. Their average age at death was 46. The average age of the 13 with Down syndrome who were alive and involved with CWS in 2020 was 55. When the individuals with Down syndrome either died or did not exit CWS by 2020 were combined, their average age was 53. An estimated average life expectancy of 60 for the 19 does not seem unreasonable. Mortality information about the two who left Madison was unknown.

Two of the eight workers who died, did so before their mothers. Three outlived their mothers. It is unknown if the three others who died did or did not do so before their mothers. Three of the eight workers who died did so before their fathers. Two outlived their fathers. It is unknown if the three others who died did or did not do so before their fathers. Two of the eight workers who died did so before both parents. Three of the eight workers who died outlived both parents. It is unknown if the three others who died did or did not do so before their parents.

It was unknown if 10 were dead or alive in 2020. Twenty four workers were alive when their fathers died. That is, they outlived their fathers. Their ages ranged from eight to 57. Their average age when their fathers died was 38. It could not be determined if ten workers did or did not outlive their fathers. Twenty one workers were alive when their mothers died. That is, they outlived their mothers. Their ages ranged from 11 to 58. Their average age when their mothers died was 43. It could not be determined if seven workers did or did not outlive their mothers.

### 2.14Guardianship

Traditionally, parents of children with significant intellectual disabilities assumed they would and should become the legal guardians of their sons/daughters at age 18. Most went through the steps necessary to do so. During the 1990’s, some parents and advocates judged that persons with disabilities should be much more involved in important decisions that affected their lives and questioned the necessity and appropriateness of legal guardianship being automatically assigned to parents. They explored and embraced such concepts as self determination, personalized choices and supports, supported decision making, limited guardianship and circles of friends and applied them to the guardianship process. While such alternatives to automatic parent guardianship worked well for some individuals and families, many of the parents of the 50 workers of concern here established more traditional guardianship arrangements. None of the 50 workers was intellectually or otherwise capable of actually functioning as their own legal guardian. If one was considered her/his legal guardian, she/he was assisted by a concerned and informed support team. In 2005 the legal guardian status of the 50 workers was as follows. Thirteen were their own legal guardians; one or more parents were the legal guardians of 35 workers; and, two workers had court appointed guardians. By 2020, 14 of the 50 original workers had died, moved from Madison or retired. CWS has no guardianship information about them. Of the 36 who were still supported by CWS, nine were their own legal guardians, parents remained or became the legal guardians of 12 and siblings remained or became the legal guardians of nine. Six workers had court appointed legalguardians.

### 2.15Social integration

In the 1970’s and 1980’s the postschool realities for the workers of concern here were confinement to a sheltered workshop, an activity center or their residences. Some rejected such isolating and otherwise unbearably limiting options. They wanted more ordinary lives. That is, they wanted them to live, work and recreate in integrated society. Why were more ordinary and thus integrated options preferred? First, integration offers more opportunities to function in an increased number of environments. These workers functioned in over 100 integrated work environments as well as in public busses, theatres, parks, streets and lunch and break rooms. Second, they were constantly exposed to the best possible social, behavior, dress, communication and work models. That is, they were constantly exposed to ordinary people doing ordinary things. This allowed them to imitate appropriate actions over long periods of time. Third, they judged that some of the most important advantages of integrated life are opportunities to interact with and develop a range of relationships with coworkers and others without disabilities who are not paid to be with them. Indeed, while the vocational achievements reported above are notable, for most workers they were secondary to the social relationships experienced. Fourth, in the 1970’s these and other individuals with significant intellectual disabilities did not go to real schools, busses, theatres, gyms, churches or stores. Indeed, they were rarely seen in public. The workers reported about here helped to change that. Now, more and more individuals with similar disabilities attend real schools, work in real places, interact with thousands of individuals without disabilities, ride public busses, use valuable curb cuts and otherwise show what they can do and what they can overcome to make contributions to society. After centuries of segregation and isolation large numbers of individuals without disabilities are now in their lives. The benefits of functioning in integrated settings were not restricted to the workers. Many coworkers described their work environments as being enhanced, their morale improved and their personal and professional lives more fulfilling because they worked with persons withdisabilities.

Mac began working at Madison Fire Station #1 in 1987. He completed a wide variety of cleaning tasks. Eventually he was able to expand his work to Madison Fire Station #4. Like most of us, some work days were easier and more productive than others. However, what was always there was the camaraderie that Mac and his coworker fire fighters shared when they were together. In 2012, after working for the Madison Fire Department for over 25 years, he suddenly died. He was given a rare Fire Fighters Memorial Service. This included his parents being presented with an American flag and bagpipes playing at his internment. Words cannot express the comfort, pride and gratitude Mac’s family experienced. They realized their son/brother/nephew/cousin/uncle had another family in his life who loved and appreciated him and honored his struggles.

Lena loved many she interacted with while meeting her recycling pick up and shredding responsibilities at Dane County Courthouse, but Judge Meurer was her favorite. At one point her supervisor was faced with an overcrowded building and a lengthy remodeling project. Thus, Lena was scheduled to move to a new location. Her Job Coach explained to Judge Meurer that changes were problematic for Lena. Without hesitation he created a solution. Lena would work in his office and share his space as he would usually be in court. Most mornings at 10:00, Judge Meurer would take a break with Lena and they would chat about their favorite colors, socks, names and foods. Judge Meurer often commented to CWS personnel about the sad lives of some of the people he sees in criminal court every day and what a contrast it was to spend time with Lena. He described their morning times together as the highlights of his day. After the remodeling, she returned to her permanent space. Her friendship with Judge Meurer deepened. She was introduced to his wife and family and engaged in social activities with them outside of work on a regular basis. When Lena’s brother was no longer able to fulfill his responsibilities as her legal guardian, Judge Meurer was asked to consider doing so. Just as there was no hesitation to share his office, he immediately said he would be honored to be her guardian.

## 3Discussion

From 1981 to 2020 the 50 workers functioned in over 150 integrated work settings for over 570 years, performed hundreds of real work tasks effectively and enjoyed hundreds of social relationships with persons without disabilities who were not paid to interact with them. Not one moved from an integrated to a segregated setting and not one instance of physical or sexual abuse in an integrated setting was reported. Vulnerable individuals are safest when they engage in meaningful activities in places with many peers without disabilities who are not paid to be with them.

The segregationists who opposed allowing opportunities for integrated vocational functioning in the 1970’s and 1980’s and predicted failure and harm were wrong. Those who oppose integration today are even more wrong because we now have an ever increasing body of evidence that, given authentic assessment and instruction and reasonable long term and personalized extra supports, individuals with significant intellectual disabilities can function successfully and safely in integrated vocational and related environments over long periods of time. The number of environments to which the workers were given access, the quantity and complexity of the tasks they performed, the social relationships they experienced and the personal choices they were allowed to make were enhanced dramatically because they functioned in integrated rather than in segregated settings. If MMSD personnel did not provide authentic vocational assessment and instruction in the 1970’s, it is extremely doubtful: that many parents would have advocated for their children to be supported in integrated work settings after school exit; that CWS would have been created; and, that the workers would have had opportunities to function in integrated society for so long.

Tragically, the service delivery models and curricula that have been proven effective preparing students with significant intellectual disabilities for the real world of work at school exit are being used by too few school districts. The results are waste, unemployment, disappointment, frustration, dependence and lives with other descriptors that are less than acceptable. It does not have to be this way. Schools are time limited means to ends. They are not ends. In the USA, students with significant intellectual disabilities typically attend school until around age 22. They are provided specially trained teachers, a wide array of therapies, paraprofessionals, door to door travel services, low ratio instruction, special art, music and physical education, special facilities and individualized curricula. These special services cost substantially more than those offered peers without disabilities. Problematically, they are much more than the monies per capita available to the same persons in postschool service agencies. The results of these well intentioned and expensive services are unacceptable. What can be done to produce better school outcomes?

• Provide increasing kinds and amounts of authentic vocational assessment and instruction as school exit approaches.

• Teach successful functioning in integrated schools and classes, but also in integrated lunch and break rooms, on public busses and trains, in carpools, worksites, parks and in a variety of other integrated settings.

• Teach students to do as much as possible for themselves and to function as well as possible under natural supervisory conditions. The unnecessary use of one to one and other low ratio instructional arrangements during school careers make it extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities to function in real work and related settings under natural supervisory conditions and in accordance with financially viable Job Coach to worker ratios at school exit.

• Teach as many students without disabilities as possible, the coworkers, supervisors and employers of the future, to provide meaningful natural support.

• Teach students to be nice to others and to work hard. If you are nice and work hard, it is amazing how coworkers without disabilities, supervisors and employers will extend themselves so you can be successful.

• Take responsibility for, plan for, fight for and otherwise do all that is feasible to produce integrated outcomes.

An important common denominator of persons with significant intellectual disabilities is their need for long term extra support. This was understood by the courageous and insightful Dane County officials who generated and maintained it. If not for their values, priorities and commitments, the workers, and many others, would have spent their lives in segregated settings or at home. In 2020, 14 agencies in Dane County, WI provided services to approximately 1,100 workers with a wide variety of disabilities who required long term extra support in integrated work environments.

Personnel to worker ratios are causally and inversely related to costs: the higher the ratio, the lower the costs; the lower the ratio, the higher the costs. This economic reality is a major problem for all persons with disabilities who wish to function in integrated vocational settings but need extra support. The more you cost, the higher are the probabilities that you will be sent to segregated settings, placed on waiting lists and/or confined to your residence. In addition, as the number of persons with disabilities who need long term taxpayer support for vocational services increases, so does the urge to revert to less than acceptable sheltered workshops and activity centers. For example, persons with significant personal care needs who use wheelchairs are often monitored using one to eight or more ratios in segregated settings. If the same persons were given opportunities to function with reasonable assistance in integrated work settings, such high ratios would be inconceivable.

CWS operates with a one to 4.6 ratio because it serves persons who need lifetime supports. Indeed, most of the workers are aging sooner than chronological age peers without disabilities. Dementia, mental illness and loss of physical functioning are increasingly problematic.

Nevertheless, they express a reasonable range of functioning levels, behavioral challenges, personal care repertoires, etc. Few agencies can survive financially or otherwise if they only serve workers with complicated personal care needs or only those who express serious behavioral challenges. Balanced and heterogeneous populations allow more persons with disabilities to function in integrated settings at reasonable costs.

If you are alive and have significant disabilities, you must be somewhere. Where should you be? You must be with someone. Who should you be with? You must be doing something. What should you be doing? You should be in respected environments with individuals without disabilities doing what they do because an integrated life is inherently better than one that is segregated. We must do all that is reasonable to prevent anyone from experiencing lives that are segregated, nonproductive, sterile, unnecessarily dependent and costly. Conversely, we must do all that is reasonable to prepare and arrange for all citizens to live, work and recreate enjoyably and productively in safe, stimulating and diverse integrated society; i e, to live lives that are as ordinary as possible.

Finally, in 2020 the population of the USA was approximately 320 million. The lowest intellectually functioning 1% of 320 million was 3.2 million. Do the lives of those in this sample of 50 represent those of the 320 million? No, but if we wanted them to they could. Hundreds of employers and supervisors in the Madison area opened their doors, hearts, values and pocketbooks and afforded these 50 deserving individuals a wonderful array of opportunities. Are they representative of the many millions of employers and supervisors in the USA? We say yes, so let’s give them the opportunities necessary to demonstrate they are. Thousands of coworkers without disabilities sat next to, touched, helped, bumped into, learned to communicate with, worked with, shared restrooms with, laughed with, lunched with the lowest intellectually functioning 1% of the adults in their community. Are they representative of the millions of coworkers without disabilities around the world? We say yes, so let’s go and get to know them. Finally, there is one more important lesson that emerges from the data presented. Each of these workers was more capable than almost everyone who knew them when they were young presumed. We now realize they can laugh, love, cry, produce real work, help others, take pride from their achievements and otherwise surprise and inform us with their previously hidden abilities. All they needed was for the village to create access to the arena and provide the critical extra support.

None to report.

## References

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