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Experimental confirmation of the IsoRedShift at sunset and sunrise, with consequential absence of the universe expansion and related conjectures

Abstract

In this paper, we recall the mutation of the Minkowski spacetime for empty space into the covering isospacetime caused by physical media; we recall its experimental verifications via the isoredshift of laser light in a metal pipe containing air at pressure, as well as additional experimental verifications in other fields; and we present, apparently for the first time, experimental confirmations of Santilli's 1991 prediction of the isoredshift as the primary origin of the redness of direct Sunlight at Sunset and Sunrise without any appreciable relative motion between Earth and Sun, said isoredshift being proportional to the distance traveled by Sunlight in air. Absorption is dismissed as a source of said redness of the Sun because air predominantly absorbs red, as experimentally established, without dismissing minor contributions, e.g., for the shape (but not the shift) of wavelengths. The widely accepted conjecture that scattering is the origin of said redness of the Sun, without dismissing minor contributions, is shown to be inapplicable for direct Sunlight, to have no representational capability for the needed very large shifts (measured up to 200 nm), and to have been dismissed experimentally at the cosmological level with recent measurements via Hubble's telescope, as well as on Earth by recent scattering measurements by some of us. Since intergalactic spaces are far from being empty, and physical laws must be the same throughout the universe, the preceding experimental results are shown to be evidence for the absence of the expansion of the universe, the absence of the acceleration of the expansion, the absence of the big bang, and the elimination of the far reaching conjecture that space itself is expanding as needed, from Hubble's law, to prevent a return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe. It is finally shown that the same experimental confirmations of Santilli isoredshift imply the absence of dark matter and dark energy since the universe is nowhere empty, with consequential universal validity of Santilli isospacetime and its Lorentz-Poincaré-Santilli isosymmetry.