Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation is a journal whose main focus is to present relevant information about the interdisciplinary approach to musculoskeletal rehabilitation for clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. It will provide readers with both 1) a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems and 2) new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty.
In each issue clinicians can find information which they can use in their patient setting the very next day. Manuscripts are provided from a range of health care providers including those in physical medicine, orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, neurosurgery, physical therapy, radiology, osteopathy, chiropractic and nursing on topics ranging from chronic pain to sports medicine. Diagnostic decision trees and treatment algorithms are encouraged in each manuscript. Controversial topics are discussed in commentaries and rebuttals. Associated areas such as medical-legal, worker's compensation and practice guidelines are included.
The journal publishes original research papers, review articles, programme descriptions and cast studies. Letters to the editors, commentaries, and editorials are also welcomed. Manuscripts are peer reviewed. Constructive critiques are given to each author. Suggestions for thematic issues and proposed manuscripts are welcomed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Electronic rulers on computer screen are used to measure the Cobb angle (CA) instead of traditional methods with rulers, protractors and pens. The variety of software used to assess radiographs might make the CA measurements cumbersome in everyday clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to verify the method of CA measurements on digital radiographs using Bunnell scoliometer (BS). METHODS: Eighty patients with idiopathic scoliosis were enrolled into the study. CA of each curve was measured by use of Centricity software and BS. CA on 30 randomly chosen patients were…measured 3 times by one researcher using only scoliometer. Three researchers measured CA on the same 30 radiographs using BS. RESULTS: The mean CA of 224 curves measured by Centricity and BS were 29° ± 12.2° and 28° ± 11.7°, respectively. The ICC for agreement for 2 methods was 0.96 with SEM of 1.7°. Excellent intra- and interobserver reliability of CA measurements with scoliometer was noted: ICC of 0.96 with SEM of 1.4° and ICC of 0.93 with SEM of 1.9°, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed excellent reliability of CA measurements on digital radiographs using the BS. The proposed method of using the Bunnell scoliometer for CA measurements may be clinically useful.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The management of De Quervain's disease is determined more by Intuition than scientific data. The choice of first line conservative option for the management of De Quervain's disease is still a topic of debate. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound with or without spica splint in the management of De Quervain's disease (DQD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). SETTING: Outpatient department of Al-Nafees Medical College Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. POPULATION: Thirty patients who had the history of the De Quervain's disease for at least 6…months were enrolled in the study. The ages of the patient were 30-50 year. The population included housewives, maids, painters, and teachers. METHODS: Thirty patients were divided into two groups. The control group was treated with therapeutic ultrasound while in the experimental group thumb spica splitting was also added. The data was collected from the subjects through Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. The demographic data was presented in the form of tables. Intervention-induced changes within the groups were investigated using paired sample t-test while independent sample t-test was used to compare the two groups. RESULTS: Significant changes within both groups (p ≤ 0.05) were observed as a result of intervention. Additionally, significant differences in some instrument items were found between experimental and control group (p ≤ 0.05) after intervention. However, some items did not demonstrate significant changes in both groups likely because there was no effect of De Quervain's disease on those items before the intervention. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the use of therapeutic ultrasound and spica splint together is more effective than using therapeutic ultrasound alone in the conservative management of De Quervain's disease. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: This study provides evidence to the relevant clinicians and professionals on the utility of therapeutic ultrasound combined with thumb spica splint in the conservative management of DQD.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The assessment of the lumbo-pelvic complex parameters is the basic procedure during the examination of the patients with low back pain syndrome (LBP). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to define the relationship between pelvic tilt and following factors: age, BMI, ability to activate deep abdominal muscles, iliopsoas and hamstrings muscles length, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis angle value, in adults with and without low back pain. METHODS: The study covered a group of 60 female students aged 20-26. Average age was 22 years ± 1.83 (median = 22.5…years). In order to investigate the relationship between the anterior pelvic tilt and the analysed variables, simple linear regression and multiple linear regression were carried out. RESULTS: Individuals with and without pain differed significantly in terms of age, p < 0.001. There was a statistically significant relationship between the anterior pelvic tilt and the LBP (R2 = 0.07, p = 0.049) and the lumbar lordosis (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The position of the pelvis depends on age, angle value of lumbar lordosis and BMI. Individuals with and without pain differed significantly in terms of the anterior pelvic tilt. The risk of LBP incidence increased with age in the study group.
Keywords: Pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis, muscle length, low back pain
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (LBP) can be managed by exercises which should be tailored to an individual's readiness to behavioral change. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an intervention program based on the Transtheoretical Model of behavioral change (TTM) on back muscle endurance, physical function and pain in rice farmers with chronic LBP. METHODS: In a 32-week study, 126 rice farmers were allocated to the TTM (n= 62) and non-TTM (n= 64) groups. Modified Biering-Sorensen test, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and visual analogue scale were used for evaluating back muscle endurance, physical function…and severity of pain, respectively. The evaluations were performed at baseline and at weeks 8, 20 and 32 of the study. Data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA. RESULTS: The back muscle endurance was significantly greater in the TTM group than in the non-TTM group at week 32 (p= 0.025). Physical function and severity of pain were significantly improved in the TTM group when compared with the non-TTM group at weeks 20 and 32 (p< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A TTM-based intervention could improve back muscle endurance and physical function, and reduce the pain in rice farmers with LBP. Further studies should be considered to explore the long-term effects of this intervention.
Keywords: Low back pain, farmers, Transtheoretical Model, exercise, health promotion
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary knee osteoarthritis on the risk of falling. MATERIALS AND METHODS : One hundred participants (50 with knee osteoarthritis and 50 healthy controls) were included in this study. Primary knee osteoarthritis was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Patients who were grade 2 or 3 by Kellgren-Lawrence criteria according to weight-bearing knee radiographs were included in this study. The risk of falling was evaluated by the interactive balance and coordination device both in the patient and control groups. The functional status…and pain were evaluated with respectively Lequesne Index and Visual Analogue Scale. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the group of primary knee osteoarthritis and control in terms of age, BMI, and gender. The median FI was 52 in the group with knee OA, whereas it was 31 in the control group. It was determined that primary knee osteoarthritis increased the risk of falling significantly and grade 3 primary knee osteoarthritis was statistically significantly higher than grade 2 (p < 0.001). The pain and functional status did not appear to be effective on the risk of falling in those patients (p > 0.05). DISCUSSION: Falling is among the important causes of mortality and morbidity in advanced age. Therefore, assessment of risk factors for falling and the strategies to prevent it are important. Primary knee osteoarthritis is one of the risk factors associated with falling. Therefore, medical approaches, proprioception training, balance-gait training, muscle strengthening exercises, and arrangements to prevent domestic injurious falling should be planned to reduce the risk of falling in the presence of primary knee osteoarthritis.
Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis, proprioception, risk of falling, gonarthrosis
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently, proprioception deficits of the rotator cuff and the deltoid muscles have been suggested to play a pivotal role in the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). To date, there are no study has been found where the kinesthesia and joint position senses have been evaluated together in SIS. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the shoulder proprioception in patients with SIS. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with SIS and 30 healthy controls, aging between 25 and 65 years, were included in the study. Main outcome measure was proprioception, assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. Kinesthesia, active and passive joint…repositioning senses were tested at 0° and 10° external rotation. All tests were repeated 4 times and the mean of angular errors were obtained. RESULTS: The mean age was 49.14 ± 10.27 and 48.80 ± 11.09 years in patient group and in control group respectively. No significant difference was found between two groups in terms of age, gender and dominance. When involved and uninvolved shoulders of the patient group were compared, kinesthesia, active and passive joint position senses were significantly impaired in involved shoulders at all angles (P < 0.05). When involved shoulders of the patient group were compared to the control group, kinesthesia, active and passive joint position senses were significantly impaired in involved shoulders in patient group at all angles (P < 0.05) except active position sense at 0°. When uninvolved shoulders of the patient group were compared to the control group, kinesthesia at 10° was significantly impaired (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed that shoulder proprioception was impaired in patients with SIS. This proprioceptive impairment was found not only in involved shoulders but also in uninvolved shoulders in patients with SIS.
Keywords: Shoulder, proprioception, kinesthesia, position sense, subacromial impingement syndrome
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that improvement of cervical lordosis in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) will improve cervical spine flexion and extension end range of motion kinematics in a population suffering from CSR. METHODS: Thirty chronic lower CSR patients with cervical lordosis < 25° were included. IRB approval and informed consent were obtained. Patients were assigned randomly into two equal groups, study (SG) and control (CG). Both groups received stretching exercises and infrared; the SG received 3-point bending cervical extension traction. Treatments were applied 3 × per week for 10 weeks, care was terminated and…subjects were evaluated at 3 intervals: baseline, 30 visits, and 3-month follow-up. Radiographic neutral lateral cervical absolute rotation angle (ARA C2-C7) and cervical segmental (C2-C7 segments) rotational and translational flexion-extension kinematics analysis were measured for all patients at the three intervals. The outcome were analyzed using repeated measures one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post-hoc multiple comparisons was implemented when necessary. Pearson correlation between ARA and segmental translational and rotational displacements was determined. RESULTS: Both groups demonstrated statistically significant increases in segmental motion at the 10-week follow up; but only the SG group showed a statistically significant increase in cervical lordosis (p < 0.0001). At 3-month follow up, only the SG improvements in segmental rotation and translation were maintained. CONCLUSION: Improved lordosis in the study group was associated with significant improvement in the translational and rotational motions of the lower cervical spine. This finding provides objective evidence that cervical flexion/extension is partially dependent on the posture and sagittal curve orientation. These findings are in agreement with several other reports in the literature; whereas ours is the first post treatment analysis identifying this relationship.
Keywords: Cervical spine, lordosis, flexion and extension, traction, spondylotic radiculopathy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Posterior lumbar surgery can lead to damage on paraspinal muscles. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to examine the recovery in the denervated paraspinal muscles by posterior lumbar surgery and to determine that of improvement in the lower back pain (LBP). METHODS: Depending on surgical treatments, the patients were divided into two groups: The group I (interspinous implantation with decompression) and II (posterior lumbar interbody fusion with decompression). The paraspinal mapping score was recorded for individual muscle. RESULTS: In the group I, there was reinnervation in the denervated multifidus and erector…spinae at the upper, surgical and lower levels at 12 months. In the group II, there was reinnervation in the denervated erector spinae at the upper, surgical and lower levels at 12 months. There was significant aggravation in the LBP in both groups at immediate postoperative. But there was significant improvement in it at 6 months in the group I and at 12 months in the group II. CONCLUSION: There was reinnervation in not only denervated multifidus and erector spinae at 12 months following interspinous ligament stabilization but also in denervated erector spinae at 12 months following pedicle screw fixation with fusion.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation affects a large number of patients annually and are the most common cause of sciatica. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at measuring the spino-pelvic alignment and its relation to the functional limitations in subjects with acutely herniated lumbar disc. METHODS: Sixteen patients with acute Lumbar disc herniation (LDH group) and 16 healthy matched volunteers (healthy group) represented the sample of the study. The patients were recently diagnosed as lumbar disc herniation (L4-5 or L5 -S1 ) with acute sciatica and antalgic posture using magnetic resonance imaging. Spino-pelvic…alignment was measured via Rasterstereography. Functional disability among patients was assessed using Oswestry Disability Index Arabic version. RESULTS: Trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, Pelvic obliquity, Pelvic torsion, Lordotic and Scoliotic angles were significantly different between groups (P 蠄 0.05). A non-significant difference in Kyphotic angle was found between the patients and healthy controls. There was no association between the measured postural changes and functional disabilities in patients with lumbar disc herniation (P 蠄 0.05). CONCLUSION: There are significant postural changes in patients with acutely herniated lumbar disc which has no relation to functional disability. These results support the concept of staying active during acute stage.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFE) is a widely accepted non-surgical treatment for pain in patients with spondylolisthesis. However, the effectiveness of TFE has not been compared in patients with degenerative (DS) and isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS). OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of bilateral TFEs in DS and IS. METHODS: Patients who underwent bilateral TFEs for spondylolisthesis at University of California San Francisco Orthopaedic Institute from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: DS patients (120 female, 51 male) were significantly older and had higher comorbidity than those with IS (18…female, 14 male). They had better pain relief after TFE than patients with IS (72.11 ± 27.46% vs 54.39 ± 34.31%; p = 0.009). The number of TFEs, the mean duration of pain relief after TFE, follow-up periods, translation and facet joint widening were similar in DS and IS groups (p > 0.05). DS group had higher successful treatment rate (66.1% vs 46.9%, p = 0.009) and longer duration of pain relief (181.29 ± 241.37 vs 140.07 ± 183.62 days, p = 0.065) compared to IS group. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral TFEs at the level of spondylolisthesis effectively decreased pain in patients. TFEs provided better pain relief for longer duration in patients with DS than for those with IS.