Affiliations: SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA | New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, NY, USA
Note:  Corresponding author: Christopher M. Fecarotta, MD, SUNY Downstate Eye Center, 2171 Nostrand Avenue @ Flatbush, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA. E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract: Our objective is to evaluate the literature regarding selected genetic diseases of the cornea, including megalocornea, keratoglobus, keratoconus, cystinosis, the mucopolysaccharidoses, sclerocornea, Peters' anomaly, familial dysautonomia, and various corneal dystrophies. The transparency of the cornea is a consequence of uniformity in both size and spacing of the collagen lamellae. The cornea's clarity depends on a delicate biochemical and structural balance; consequently, genetic disorders that disrupt either its metabolic or anatomic function can cause opacity and vision loss. Many childhood corneal diseases have a genetic etiology and are associated with known syndromes. Each disorder has unique associated set of possible complications. Prognosis often depends on the extent of opacity and disorganization of the anterior segment. Corneal transplantation has been performed for these disorders with variable success.