Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 250.00
Impact Factor 2019: 1.009
WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal which publishes high quality peer-reviewed manuscripts covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal's subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice.
WORK occasionally publishes thematic issues, but in general, issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work.
Dr. Karen Jacobs, the founding editor, and her editorial board especially encourage the publication of research studies, clinical practice, case study reports, as well as personal narratives and critical reflections of lived work experiences (autoethnographic/autobiographic scholarship),
Sounding Board commentaries and
Speaking of Research articles which provide the foundation for better understanding research to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
Narrative Reflections on Occupational Transitions, a new column, is for persons who have successfully transitioned into, between, or out of occupations to tell their stories in a narrative form. With an internationally renowned editorial board,
WORK maintains high standards in the evaluation and publication of manuscripts. All manuscripts are reviewed expeditiously and published in a timely manner.
WORK prides itself on being an author-friendly journal.
WORK celebrates its 25th anniversary in 2015.
*WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT)* *WORK is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA)* *WORK gives out the yearly Cheryl Bennett Best Paper Award*
Abstract: The context of oil platform design is changing in order to increase competitiveness and be prepared for difficult operations, mainly in fields more distant from the coast, like pre-salt. The currently preceding context is marked by projects guidelines designed to reduce projects and operation costs, including an important reducing in the number of people on board. The main objective of this research is to verify and discuss if the experience of use in platforms designed in a previous context, in which the people on board is practically twice, can contribute and/or can be transferred to new projects. From the ergonomic…intervention in the design of two oil platform, with the work of team on board investigated on previous projects as reference, it was possible analyze if the previous use is still applicable to new projects. As a result, about 90% of the recommendations based on use are applicable to the current context. The restrictions on the transfer or operational experience are mainly related to the time of entry of ergonomics in the design process, the subsequent transformations costs and the advance of the execution phase started with the detailed design.
Abstract: BIM is targeted at providing information about the entire building and a complete set of design documents and data stored in an integrated database. In this paper, we study the use of BIM in two life-cycle construction projects in Kuopio, Finland during 2011. The analysis of uses of BIM and their main problems will constitute a foundation for an intervention. We will focus on the following questions: (1) How different partners use the composite BIM model? (2) What are the major contradictions or problems in the BIM use? The preliminary findings reported in this study show that BIM has been…adopted quite generally to design use but the old ways of collaboration seem to prevail, especially between designers and between designers and building sites. BIM has provided new means and demands for collaboration but expansive uses of BIM for providing new interactive processes across professional fields have not much come true.
Keywords: building information modeling, activity theory, multi-partner project collaboration, design, construction
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 114-119, 2012
Abstract: Based on literature, this article aims to present the “participant-observation’ research protocol, and its practical application in the industrial engineering field, more specifically within the area of design development, and in the case shown by this article, of interiors’ design. The main target is to identify the concept of the method, i.e., from its characteristics to structure a general sense about the subject, so that the protocol can be used in different areas of knowledge, especially those ones which are committed with the scientific research involving the expertise from researchers, and subjective feelings and opinions of the users of an…engineering product, and how this knowledge can be benefic for product design, contributing since the earliest stage of design.
Keywords: participant observation, research scientific, product design, product engineering
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 120-126, 2012
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of intermediary objects in the workspace design process of offshore accommodations module. The integration of ergonomics in the design process can lead to better work conditions, more effectiveness in the work process and less health and safety issues. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of cost if ergonomics is considered from the initial phases of the project, as the potential costs of the redesign, the possible losses and the down-time in the operation of the platform would be more increased. The goal, then, is to discuss the integration of…ergonomics and users involvement in the design process of accommodations modules, focusing on the transfer of information from reference situations by the use of intermediary objects during the process. In this paper we will present two tools developed to be used as intermediary object(s) aiming at transferring the experience from the use to the design in the specific field of offshore accommodations module.
Keywords: ergonomic work analysis, ergonomic recommendations, accommodations module
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 127-135, 2012
Abstract: This paper presents the model “Work Situation Operative Model” - MOST (after its Spanish acronym). It offers a comprehensive, systemic approach to analysing work stations and/or work processes, serving also as a framework for pursuing various ergonomic and occupational health and safety goals. Originally produced for a food sector company, the model has been extended and successfully applied in several industries in Colombia and Ecuador, including cement, oil, and paper industries. Based on a systemic understanding of work systems and tasks, the model not only allows different, commonly-used methods and tools for evaluating or assessing the risk of muscular-sketetal disorders…to be included, but also supports occupational risk management strategies. Hence, one of its more important contributions relies on providing meaningful information that is useful for improving the work station and/or work process through design and re-design, by focusing on the interactions between all system elements.
Keywords: ergonomic system, ergonomic method, comprehensive model, work place design, work station design
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 136-139, 2012
Abstract: Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the “moving phase”, which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the “moving phase” or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage…not usually included in the design process.
Keywords: architectural design process, moving phase, use of a built environment, ergonomics analysis of work
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 140-144, 2012
Abstract: Advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts related to automation, airspace organization and operational procedures are driven by the overall goal to increase ATM system performance. Independently on the nature and/or impact of envisaged changes (e.g. from a short term procedure adjustment to a very long term operational concept or aid tools completion), the preliminary assessment of possible gains in airspace/airport capacity, safety and cost-effectiveness is done by running Model Based Simulations (MBSs, also known as Fast Time Simulations - FTS). Being a not human-in-the-loop technique, the reliability of a MBS results depend on the accuracy and significance of modeled human…factors. Despite that, it can be observed in the practice that modeling tools commonly assume a generalized standardization of human behaviors and tasks and consider a very few range of work environment factors that, in the reality, affect the actual human-system performance. The present paper is aimed at opening a discussion about the possibility to keep task description and related weight at a high/general level, suitable for an efficient use of MBSs and, at the same time, increasing simulations reliability adopting some adjustment coming from the elaboration of further variables related to the human aspects of controllers workload.
Keywords: task, workload, human performance, environmental conditions, context variables
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 145-150, 2012
Abstract: This article presents a study on the activities of the air traffic controllers of the Approach Control Area (APP) of Porto Alegre, Brazil, in different real scenarios. Based on interviews, questionnaires and the analysis of film of real scenes, the following were identified and analyzed: i) the perceptions of risk and complexity of the different air traffic scenes observed; ii) the cognitive factors (knowledge, strategy and attention dynamics) involved in the task and iii) the perception of the controller’s workload. The results showed that the task complexity depends on the weather conditions, the number and type of aircraft in observation…and that the controllers perceive the scenes in a similar way irrespective of their time in the profession and the type of control (radar or coordination). Attention is the cognitive factor with the greatest impact on the work and mental demand has the greatest impact on workload followed by time demand. The literature on the controllers work in Brazil is scarce and, therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the work in one APP in order to promote future changes in the very problematic Brazilian air traffic system.
Keywords: air traffic control, complexity, safety, workload
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 151-158, 2012
Abstract: In air traffic management (ATM) knowledge of the impact of human factors on performance is critical to address safety incidents. Previous research has largely focused on the effects of single factors on performance which has resulted in a comprehensive understanding of single factor effects. In current control environments however, the residual threats for incidents often result from the interaction of multiple human factors and the resulting cumulative impact on performance. This research uses a literature review, an analysis of over 400 European aviation incident reports and finally a survey of ATM professionals to assess the need for a multifactorial model…of performance. Literature findings suggest that Human Factors approaches are fundamentally single-factor in nature, which is out of step with real ATM working contexts. An incident report analysis, supported by a survey of air traffic experts, suggests that multiple factor incident causation exists. This discrepancy suggests the need for a new approach to looking at how incidents occur, and their factors managed, on a day-to-day basis. The proposed solution is a multifactorial model of human performance.
Keywords: air traffic control, aviation incident reports, human factor interaction, human performance
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 159-166, 2012
Abstract: Designing a usable human machine interface for air traffic control is challenging and should follow approved methods. The ISO 9241-210 standard promises high usability of products by integrating future users and following an iterative process. This contribution describes the proceeding and first results of the analysis and application of ISO 9241-210 to develop a planning tool for air traffic controllers.
Keywords: Air Traffic Control, User Centred Design Process, Participation, Interface Design, Iteration
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 167-174, 2012
Abstract: The aim of this manuscript is to describe and compare regulatory aviation agencies according to their subordination and attributions to investigate air accidents. Possible consequences in identifying the contributory factors are also presented. Distinct procedures investigating air accidents among agencies lead to a lack of standardization of the statistics, making it difficult to analyze the data globally. Separately the information does not configure the entire scenario of what occurred, affecting the analysis and subsequent interventions. We recommend a joint and collaborative work between the different committees that operate in the investigation of air accidents.
Keywords: air accidents, regulatory agencies, accidents investigation, organizational factors, standardization
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 175-177, 2012
Abstract: This paper describes an experimental study investigating pilots’ manual flying skills. In today’s line oriented flight training, basic flying skills are neglected frequently. So, the study examines the manual flying skills of commercial airline pilots under the influence of several performance shaping factors like training, practice or fatigue in a landing scenario. The landing phase shows a disproportionate high percentage of aircraft accidents and it is typically flown by hand. The study is to be undertaken with randomly selected pilots in a full motion flight simulator to ensure a high validity of the results.
Abstract: There are situations in the operation of complex machinery which is significant pressure. In need of capturing, interpreting and processing information from instruments, often in seconds. This occurs in the middle where it operates the pilot and the aircraft will be established a set of operations that will culminate with a maneuver, consisting of a substantial and binding set of procedures performed for this driver. This has little time to evaluate and act, supported by aircraft instruments and external environmental signals captured by the senses, which will stimulate conditioned actions that, if executed without due accuracy, is reflected in a…deadly mistake. These situations cause a state of tension and unpredictability, especially when there is bad weather and / or no visibility and bad wind conditions occur and are not supportive or even shrinkage, or even partial or total ability to operate the airplane happen..
Abstract: A study investigating what factors are present leading to pilots submitting voluntary anomaly reports regarding their flight performance was conducted. Diffusion Maps (DM) were selected as the method of choice for performing dimensionality reduction on text records for this study. Diffusion Maps have seen successful use in other domains such as image classification and pattern recognition. High-dimensionality data in the form of narrative text reports from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) were clustered and categorized by way of dimensionality reduction. Supervised analyses were performed to create a baseline document clustering system. Dimensionality reduction techniques identified concepts or keywords…within records, and allowed the creation of a framework for an unsupervised document classification system. Results from the unsupervised clustering algorithm performed similarly to the supervised methods outlined in the study. The dimensionality reduction was performed on 100 of the most commonly occurring words within 126,000 text records describing commercial aviation incidents. This study demonstrates that unsupervised machine clustering and organization of incident reports is possible based on unbiased inputs. Findings from this study reinforced traditional views on what factors contribute to civil aviation anomalies, however, new associations between previously unrelated factors and conditions were also found.
Keywords: Data Mining, Dimensionality Reduction, Text Records, Clustering, Incident Reports
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 188-197, 2012
Abstract: The decreased pressure in the cabin of a pressurised aircraft (typically equivalent to ~8000 ft) reduces the oxygen level so that the blood oxygen saturation of all occupants falls from >97% (normoxia) at sea-level to below 92% (mild hypoxia). Although exposure to mild hypoxia does not affect well-learned cognitive and motor performance of aircrew, it has been proposed that it can affect the performance of some complex cognitive performance tasks involving multiple demands typical of emergency tasks that may have to be performed by pilots. In order to simulate some of these complex cognitive demands, 25 student volunteers participated in…an experiment which assessed performance of complex logical reasoning and and multiple memory tasks before and after 2 hours of exposure to normoxia and mild hypoxia. Performance for the more difficult components of the complex reasoning task, especially involving conflict decisions, were marginally significantly degraded by mild hypoxia. Since the effects were only marginally significant future studies should investigate the effects of mild hypoxia on more subtle complex decision-making tasks.
Abstract: In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with…the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew’s living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition.
Abstract: People are central to system functioning and this role has been dramatically extended by new information technology. This makes possible the fundamental transformation of processes across systems of systems. Can Ergonomics research play an effective role in systems integration innovation? To have real world impact on such problems the system of R and D needs to sustain strong designs that address the functionality of socio-technical systems and support the implementation of innovations, taking into account the complexity of change, the importance of values of dignity and trust, and creating a common understanding amongst all stakeholders to enable design for operations.…Strong research designs are more expensive, difficult, risky and prolonged than more commonly practiced weaker designs. They require active engagement with the industrial or service provider and involve overcoming cultural and other barriers to effective implementation and change. To create a virtuous cycle of research-generated impact it is necessary for strong designs to be well supported in the research community and for real world impact to be central to performance criteria of research excellence. Unfortunately neither of these criteria appear to be fulfilled. To ameliorate this, deficiencies in the full cycle of systems integration innovation need to be addressed.
Keywords: research impact, systems integration, implementation, design for operations, trust
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 209-218, 2012
Abstract: Maintenance tasks, especially in heavy maintenance, may not be completed in a single shift. Aircraft maintenance technicians often take work in progress by colleagues, and spend the incomplete work for a change of team. The need for accuracy and efficiency of information transfer in many cases, without having time to have a meeting to pass the service is a crucial aspect of maintenance work. The ideal shift change can occur normally before delivery and continues to proceed normally after delivery. Although a shift change create challenges for communication, they also offer opportunities to detect and correct errors, where the task…of delivery is an opportunity to identify the problem and fix it. In this case, the task was done correctly the first round, however, a problem began when the second round took. One example is a case in which the first round have removed a defective part for replacement and let the component of aircraft at end of turn with problems. Instead of ordering and installation of an operational component, the second round was then reinstall the faulty component, not realizing he had information about the problem attached.
Abstract: The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that “the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster. ” These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, “making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft…in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane’s fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.
Keywords: processing information, human error, trainning
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 222-224, 2012
Abstract: Military air operations and law enforcement operations in helicopters are examples of activities that require high performance of the operator. This article aimed at presenting a preliminary analysis of data obtained in the initial study in order to validate the instruments and the research protocol that focuses on the analysis of the workload imposed on helicopter pilots in emergency situations. The research was conducted in an environment of real flight training and used the NASA-TLX Scale to assess the workload and an interview guide to obtain reports on the main tasks performed. Preliminary data obtained is related to the participation…of 10 (ten) volunteer pilots with experience in different types of helicopters. Four scenarios involving helicopter emergency procedures of HB-350 "Squirrel” were outlined. For this article, the analysis used only the data regarding the Physical and Mental Demands of the NASA-TLX Scale. Preliminarily, the results indicate that the "time pressure" as a factor contributing to increase mental requirement in emergency situations in flight, and that this increase was reflected in the request of mental processes such as: identification of the breakdown, attention and monitoring parameters. Future steps include extending the sample and adding physiological tools to better understand the effects of these types of emergencies on pilot performance and flight safety.
Abstract: In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.
Keywords: air traffic, Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS), Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP)
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 232-239, 2012
Abstract: The objective of the present study is to propose a method to dynamically evaluate discomfort of a passenger seat by measuring the interface pressure between the occupant and the seat during the performance of the most common activities of a typical flight. This article reports the results of resting and reading studies performed in a simulator that represents the interior of a commercial aircraft.
Abstract: To predict the technology acceptance of a system before market release is one of the big challenges of today. Many models are concerned with the question if someone is going to accept the system or not. Within this work a first empirical investigation of a personal trait called Pleasure of Control (PoC) is presented. Pleasure of Control is a construct that divides people into those people enjoy having control over a technical system and those who do not. It is predicted that a high Pleasure of Control leads to a prolonged system usage and unwillingness to accept highly automated systems.…This paper presents a first empirical investigation of Pleasure of Control with 10 Persons with focus on usage durations. An experimental study revealed differences in the usage durations of a technical system (Apple iPad) between users with high and user with low Pleasure of Control measures.
Keywords: technology acceptance, usage durations, pleasure of control, automated systems
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 246-251, 2012
Abstract: At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the “feeling of space” of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection,…the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values.
Keywords: sense of space, effect of space, space perception, PCMAN, objective evaluation of space effects
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 252-257, 2012
Abstract: Lack of system reliability has been repeatedly identified as a factor that decreases trust. However, aesthetics has an important role in the development of trust. Most of the research concerning the connection between aesthetics and trust focused on mobile commerce and websites while very little has been done in examining aesthetics in automated systems. This study integrated aesthetics manipulations into an imperfect in-vehicle automation system and focused on the power of aesthetics to decrease the negative effects of errors on trust, satisfaction, annoyance, and human-automation cooperation perceptions. Participants used the navigation system in either 100% or 85% accuracy levels with…an aesthetic or non aesthetic system (4 conditions). In both aesthetic and non aesthetic systems, perceptions of trust, satisfaction and human automation cooperation were decreased in the imperfect system compared to the perfect one. However, in the annoyance rating, this trend was found only in the aesthetic system while in the non-aesthetic system no difference was found between the two levels of accuracy. This single effect may indicate upon the possibility that in automated systems aesthetics affects trust and satisfaction more moderately compared to mobile commerce applications and websites. However, more research is needed to assess this assumption.
Abstract: This article presents a study on the perception of fear related to the use of three different types of urban furniture, qualitatively evaluated based on interviews while people were using them in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil: the bus shelter, the playground, and the gymnastic equipment. The fear related to the lack of safety of the urban space was associated with the use of the three types of products. The fear experienced by the use of the playground and the bus shelter was related to the occurrence of accidents, since both products are often unsafe and do not fulfill…ergonomic parameters. The fear experienced from the use of the gymnastic equipment is related to the possibility of incorrect use of the product and the occurrence of harassment. Both ergonomics and emotion are important aspects to be considered in design, in order to make the use of social/ collective products a pleasant experience.
Keywords: emotion and design, ergonomics, collective product
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 266-271, 2012
Abstract: Past research showed that people are able to perceive the personality of others at zero acquaintances. There are two main ways, verbal and non-verbal methods, which play an important role for one in perceiving personality of others. Extensive research was conducted in relating personality with verbal, paralinguistic and gestures cues. However, there are not much research, to our knowledge, that relates the appearance and perceived personality of robots. The main objective of this research is to relate individual design features with big five perceived personality of the robots. We used the results of rated perceptions across 100 pictorial images of…robots and relate the results with the 40 individual design features using General Linear Model (GLM). The initial results of the GLM analysis showed that participants’ rating of personality of robot fell along the dimension of perceived friendliness which is a common rotation of extroversion and agreeableness. Some relationships were found between humanlike design features and perceived friendliness of robots. Since participants are more familiar with humans, participants perceived robots with humanlike features friendlier than the others. Some other findings such as color and surface material were found related with participants’ perceived friendliness as well. In the future, we will work on the analysis of the main and interaction effects of individual features on user’s perceived friendliness.
Keywords: social robots, perceived personality, visual appearance, generalized linear model
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 272-276, 2012
Abstract: Several people buy products that they will never use or even know what for. Feelings associated with pleasure, spontaneity and possession of something are reasons why people buy products without considering if they really need it or not if it will be useful or not, etc.. The collective buying sites are going up and offer products and services with great discounts. This study aims to relate the emotional design and usability concerning to collective buying sites and identify the reasons that influence people when it comes to buy something online.
Keywords: user experience, interface analysis, simplification of purchasing processes
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 277-281, 2012
Abstract: This article presents a study on the identification of a setting whose arrangement of attributes could lead to the perception of pleasantness of a bus shelter: a product that should welcome people while waiting for the bus. Two different bus shelters typologies in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were evaluated, where four attributes were under consideration. The relation between the shelters subject of the study and the surroundings was significant for defining the attributes. The setting with curve shaped cover, bench, rear wall, and surrounding vegetation was considered the most pleasant one. The…seats and the rear wall were associated with the practical function of the product while the curve shaped cover and the surrounding vegetation were associated with the aesthetical function according to the participant users.
Keywords: emotional design, pleasantness, bus shelter, product attributes, product functions
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 282-289, 2012
Abstract: This article addresses the love for shoes by the perspective of design and emotion. Reviewing the footwear history, we realize that it did not take too long for the shoes start to have new functions, aesthetic and symbolic, which eventually came to have greater relevance in the acquisition of women’s shoes. Today, these outweigh the importance of physical comfort for many women, that once feeling pretty, do not realize the discomfort of the shoe. Studies indicate that the objects we love have a strong influence on our sense of identity, especially when dealing with clothing articles that have the power…to show on our appearance our identity, tastes and preferences. Crossing the semiotics field, the footwear is analyzed as an object of feminine desire, imbued with symbolic relations. As a result, we propose a framework to describe the emotional relationship between women and shoes.
Keywords: female footwear, design and emotion, love for products, protection, pleasure
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 290-294, 2012
Abstract: Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing…the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.
Keywords: comfort, ergonomics, automobile, seat, model
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 295-302, 2012
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present Finnish employees’ opinions on continuing work until retirement pension and after the age of 63, and to find out if physical workload is related to these opinions. Altogether 39% of men and 40% of women had never had thoughts of early retirement, and 59% claimed (both men and women) that they would consider working beyond the age of 63. Own health (20%); financial gain such as salary and better pension (19%); meaningful, interesting and challenging work (15%); flexible working hours or part-time work (13%); lighter work load (13%); good work community (8%);…and good work environment (6%) were stated as factors affecting the decision to continue working after the age of 63. Employees whose work involved low physical workload had less thoughts of early retirement and had considered continuing work after the age of 63 more often than those whose work involved high physical loads. Own health in particular was stated as a reason to consider continuing work by employees whose work was physically demanding.
Keywords: retirement intentions, postponing retirement, physically demanding work, work posture
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 303-306, 2012
Abstract: In many countries of the world, retirement is mandatory at the age at which persons who hold certain jobs or offices are required by employment law to leave their employment, or retire (60 to 65 years). Typically, this is justified by the argument that certain occupations are either too dangerous or require high levels of physical skills and mental work. Every worker has to leave the workforce at that age. However, starting from the last two decades of the last century, it is observed that retirees live more years in retirement than ever before. This relatively long retirement as well…as retirees’ body fitness made many of them engage in new jobs which are either similar to their career jobs, or completely different from them. In this new type of employment which is called “bridge employment’, the retired worker may spend more than ten years. But, to what extent these new jobs are fitted to the aged worker? Considering that experiencing any type of event increases the risk of worse health outcomes over time, bridge employment should be ergonomically designed if it is to fit the aged worker characteristics (physical, mental and affective).
Keywords: retirement, aged worker, career jobs, bridge employment, ergonomics
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 307-312, 2012
Abstract: At present the health of people in theirs 60s is the same as in theirs 50s around fifty years ago. Using older academics is a topical problem for universities in remaining efficient. Data regarding academics’ scientific productivity at universities were collected and questionnaires compiled in the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of Tallinn University of Technology in Estonia. Studies showed that the productivity of academics at university increases as they grow older (into their 60s). These academics are valuable to the university. The choice of academics should be made according to the candidates’ knowledge and ability to work.
Keywords: ability to work, research, academics
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 313-315, 2012
Abstract: Nursing personnel is essential in hospital, health centers and enterprises and is the large work force in health system. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large city in two public hospitals and five health centre with the objective of to evaluate the work ability and health aspects of nursing staff. The sample was composed by 570 workers. The Work Ability Index – WAI and a questionnaire with socio-demographic, health and life style data was applied. The majority of workers was women (83%), married (50.4%), and was working in night shift work (65.6%); 61.4% was auxiliary nursing, 22.3% was registered…nurses (RN). The average age was 38.9 years (SD 7.8) and the Body Mass Index mean was 25.8 (SD 5.3). Only 17.2% referred to practice at least 150 minutes of physical exercise five times per week or more. 26.8% had a second job. The work ability mean was 39.3 (SD 5.3) points. Age had a negative correlation with WAI (p=0.0052). Public hospital and health centre workers had poor work ability score when compared with workers from another branches. Public policies related to workplace health promotion need to be implemented in public hospital and health centre to improve the work ability.
Keywords: life style, work ability, aging, nursing staff
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 316-319, 2012
Abstract: Knowing the users is capital for building user-friendly digital interfaces. One way to think about the users is considering their familiarity with this technology. This article presents the results of twelve interviews with elderly people residing in the so-called South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who have used mobile phones over at least one year. It is part of the Doctor’s Thesis “Mobile phones for elderly people — usability for social integration” (“Celulares para idosos — usabilidade a serviço da integração social”), which is targeted at ascertaining if the current mobile phones are user-friendly for elderly people. Through the…technique of Guided Interviews, we found usage time, criteria for choice of phones, reasons for changes, preferences, and manners of use. Preliminarily, we have noticed differences in the behavior of the participating users and performed a qualitative analysis according to groups of age and gender.
Keywords: Elderly users, mobile phones, usage, features and preferenes
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 320-327, 2012
Abstract: Older adults have been facing usability problems every day, and with the increasing of life expectation those issues will be more and more frequent. The study of this group capacities and limitations could help designers to project systems more usable to everyone.
Abstract: The ability of older adults to use a domestic appliance depends on their comprehension of the appliance’s operation. This may depend on transfer of understanding from similar, more familiar technology. While this may assist their interaction with the new device, it may constrain the discovery of new functionality not represented in the familiar technology, and, thereby, constrain the discovery of advanced functionality. Older adults experience declining cognitive abilities associated with attention, perceptual encoding, and memory (cueing and recall). Designing appliances to extend cognitive abilities provides opportunity to prolong functional independence. Concepts from cognitive psychology, human factors, and gerontology are reviewed…to explain age-related behavior towards technology to support innovative product development of technologies for older adults.
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO), as well as researchers of the whole world, it has been demonstrating concern with the subject of the aging related to the work and it recognizes that modifications in the several systems of the human body take to the gradual decrease in the effectiveness of each one of them, because the aging caused by the work advances apprenticeships of the cycle of the man’s life, not respecting the natural state of that process. In this sense, it was aimed at with this research to investigate the relative aspects to the capacity for the work and…to the workers’ with responsibility to realize the work in the laundries service, verifying if they present signs of precocious functional aging.
Keywords: Capacity for the work, Precocious functional aging, Laundry, Workers
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 340-348, 2012
Abstract: Internet-based telemedicine is becoming an effective tool to deliver home-healthcare services and health information on demand, especially in rural areas, where there is often a large elderly population with greater rates of preventable chronic diseases. However, the designs of current interfaces for these internet-based telemedicine systems do not take elderly user characteristics into consideration. This study conducted usability testing on the interface of an internet-based telemedicine system using two different age groups, young adults and older adults. Differences in overall performance and satisfaction between the two groups were identified. Based on these results, a future direction is suggested for the…interfaces of internetbased telemedicine systems.
Abstract: Telemedicine has emerged as an effective tool for providing high quality healthcare service and health-related information, especially in rural areas. Rural areas often have a larger elderly population with greater rates of preventable disease. These areas also have fewer medical resources and specialists, and have limited access to health services, all of which can influence overall health. An internet-based telemedicine system can be one solution to provide the rural elderly with the proper health information when needed. The elderly obviously have limited capabilities compared with younger adults in the use of internet technology. However, the interfaces of the currently existing…internet-based telemedicine systems are not specifically developed for elderly users. This paper suggests future interface design research for an internet-based telemedicine system specifically for the elderly.
Abstract: Gerontolinguistic obtains a growing importance with the increase of elderly users due to Demographic Change. Since acceptance and ease of use of supportive systems for elderly, such as “E-Nursing-Assistants“, are highly dependent on the age suitable design of readable instructions, an age-appropriate linguistic concept is of high value for usability. There has been only little research on the relevance of foreign words, signal words, textual arrangement, optical accentuation of key terms and temporal iconicity concerning older users. Thus, an efficient design of age suitable manual instructions within a medical context still remains to be done. The objective of this research…was to evaluate the relevance of the previously mentioned factors in the context of written instructions. For this, an empirical survey was designed which was given to 45 study participants. The subjects of the experiment were given 4x3 instructions after a pretest questionnaire. The aim was to execute these instructions as correctly and quickly as possible. Furthermore the instructions were rated regarding comprehensibility with a retrospective questionnaire.
Keywords: readability, 50+, temporal iconicity, linguistic factors, layout factors
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 357-361, 2012
Abstract: As the world population is ageing, studies on the socio-economic and health consequences are proliferating. Little has been done on the effectiveness and impact elderly may benefit from the use of technology in their everyday life. The pilot study, implemented within a funded project aimed at identifying sustainable actions to promote Seniors’ quality of life, intended to investigate this kind of interaction in terms of accessibility and acceptability that senior citizen experience with technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training. In the hypothesis, interfaces and technological artifacts, that still take in little account the seniors’ physical characteristics (e.g. physiological limitations…in sight, hearing, movement) and cognitive processes (selective memory often driven by practical needs), can cause elderly to mistrust technology. Study participants were twenty over seventy-year-old people, who were observed and interviewed in context in a two-hour training session regarding the technological devices user experience. The results are presented with scenario-based techniques that help represent typologies of users in different use situations. Findings confirm the hypothesis, highlighting that elderly may accept technological artifacts when they perceive them as bringing benefits in terms of well-being and health.
Keywords: ageing, quality of life, usability, interaction design
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 362-369, 2012
Abstract: The elderly are at an increased risk for being diagnosed with diabetes. While previous studies have examined technique errors when a patient used his or her current blood glucometer or a single novel glucometer, no study has measured errors as a patient transferred to using a second, novel experimental glucometer. Results support findings that older adults perform more slowly and less accurately than younger adults when transferring between pieces of equipment. Implications for future blood glucometer design and training are discussed.
Keywords: healthcare, aging, medical devices, blood glucose monitor
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 370-373, 2012
Abstract: This study was conducted with older adults living in a long-stay institution in the city of Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil with the objective of assessing the influence of muscle strength loss in the risk of falls. The sample consisted of 65 elderly who walk without the aid of support for locomotion, 37 women and 28 men, aged between 67 and 80 years. The risk of falls was assessed through the TUG test. To determine the handgrip strength, a hand dynamometer model Jamar ( was used, which provides the result in kg / force (kgf), being held only with the…dominant hand. The results showed that in the last 12 months, only 32% of the elderly surveyed had no fall and the average handgrip strength was 24.32 ( 11.22 kgf; 40% had one fall and the average handgrip strength was 23.82 ( 10.18 kgf; 8% had two falls and the average handgrip strength was 19.48 ( 8.21 kgf and 20% had more than one fall and the average handgrip strength of 18.13 ( 7.33 Kgf., indicating that the force levels are statistically lower among elderly at high risk of falls (p> 0.05). It was concluded that the lower the force level, the greater the likelihood of falls. Thus, it is important to stress that due to the loss of muscle strength, all ergonomic hazards and architectural barriers must be removed so that older adults can perform their tasks more easily, with comfort and safety.
Keywords: aging, ergonomics, accident
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 374-379, 2012
Abstract: The EU and its Member States have identified population ageing as one of the key economic and social challenges to be faced. A high employment rate for older workers is essential. The ability to work is a prerequisite for a high employment rate for older workers. From 1965-2000, we carried out physiological and ergonomic studies in enterprises in Estonia, Russia, Ukraine and Moldova and proposed measures to avoid health risks. Our investigations were commissioned by industrial enterprises to improve the workplace and working conditions. The most interesting finding was that it was possible to markedly postpone the development of ageing…changes in workers’ bodies by up to 20 years without major investments.
Keywords: ergonomics, youth, ageing
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 380-382, 2012
Abstract: French companies are legally required to develop action plans to improve employment and work conditions for older workers (“plans seniors”). These plans contain measures oriented towards recruiting, career evolution, skills developme1nt, knowledge transmission and improvement of work conditions. A tool for assessing work situations experienced by council buildings caretakers (“gardiens”) was used in such a plan on behalf of the main agency of council housing in Paris, and we developed. This assessment tool was developed after ergonomic work analysis on a sample of 36 older caretakers (age > 57 y.o). The technical inspectors in charge of technical interventions on buildings…and managing caretakers were trained to use the assessment tool and apply it to all caretakers aged 50 and over.
Keywords: work analysis, aging, social housing, management training
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 383-387, 2012
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a regression equation that, incorporating the potential energy of the load in the hands, was capable of improved predictions of spinal compression forces. A stepwise polynomial equation was developed from EMG profiles of 15 muscles, and its spinal joint loading predictions at L4/L5 were compared to current methods of calculating spinal compression. Absolute muscle activation was shown to increase with increased loading height, indicating that the central nervous system responds to changes in spinal stability. The inclusion of potential energy into the calculation of spinal disc compression at L4/L5 improved estimates of…the compressive forces acting on the spine. This is the first model to incorporate potential energy into a predictive model for lumbar spine compression without the use of electromyography. It was concluded that potential energy plays a vital role in dictating the recruitment patterns of the trunk.
Keywords: lifting, compression, low back loading
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 388-393, 2012
Abstract: Physical workload is a continuous problem, even in modern workplaces. The purpose of the survey was to determine the effect of support on employees’ physical load factors at workplaces. Training, guidance and support were the main focus areas of the early support intervention, which aimed to enable supervisors to find weak signals of impaired ergonomics. The survey was carried out in the form of a controlled longitudinal study, and the material was gathered via a questionnaire in both 2008 and 2010 from two co-operative trade groups. The final sample was 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects, and the…response rate was 45% in both groups. We applied factor analysis to reduce the number of items. The physical load factors’ sum score consisted of six items. We used logistic regression in the statistical analysis. Encouragement to improve processes at the workplace increased the probability of positive change (i.e. decrease) in physical load factors. The same applied to working pace, if individuals could control it themselves. In contrast, workload and the support of supervisors had a reversed impact on workers’ physical load factors. Focusing on promoting workers’ ergonomics is still important in workplaces when aiming to decrease physical load factors.
Keywords: ergonomics, weak signals, effects, intervention, follow-up study
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 394-396, 2012
Abstract: Recently, an equation was developed to predict maximal acceptable effort (MAE) for repetitive tasks based on the product of task frequency and effort duration (ie. duty cycle). This equation has been shown to closely match data from psychophysical studies of the upper extremities. In the current paper, the applicability of this equation was tested on lifting and lowering data from Snook and Ciriello (1991) and was found to fit closely, even at very low duty cycles.
Keywords: psychophysics, strength, maximum acceptable effort, ergonomic limits
vol. 41, no. Supplement 1, pp. 397-400, 2012