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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prolonged wheelchair sitting is known to lead to venous stasis and results in leg edema. OBJECTIVE: To clarify how a dynamic cushion affects leg edema in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) evoked by wheelchair sitting, we measured the changes in leg volume induced during wheelchair sitting with a dynamic air cushion or a static cushion. METHODS: Seven wheelchair users with SCI participated in this study. Leg edema during wheelchair sitting was evaluated with strain gauge plethysmography (the gauge was placed 10 cm proximally from the medial malleolus). Following a period of…rest, the subjects sat on a reclining wheelchair containing a dynamic cushion for 15 min. Then, the protocol was repeated with a static cushion. The above two procedures were performed in a random order. These data were statistically compared between the two procedures. RESULTS: The change in leg volume observed during sitting on the dynamic cushion (- 0.02 ± 0.21 ml/100 ml) was smaller than that observed during sitting on the static cushion (0.18 ± 0.28 ml/100 ml) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the dynamic air cushion relieved leg edema induced by wheelchair sitting in individuals with SCI.
Keywords: Wheelchair cushion, leg volume, spinal cord injury, plethysmography
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of transcutaneous electrical stimulation for neuromodulation is an important treatment strategy for functional nerve diseases. It can not only reduce patient pain and prevent the development of drug-resistant disease, but is also more effective than alternative treatment methods. OBJECTIVE: Ag/AgCl electrodes are commonly used for transcutaneous stimulation. However, the silver ions can dissolve in tissue during electrical stimulation, which can lead to heavy metal poisoning and other issues. This study analyzed the amount of residual silver ions found in tissue after electrical stimulation. METHODS: Saline solution and animal skin were…chosen as experimental analogs for human tissue and the amount of residual silver ions were analyzed via ultraviolet spectrophotometer. RESULTS: After a volume-to-quantity conversion, we found that after using a pair of electrodes for three hours, the concentrations of silver ions dissolved in the saline solution and the skin were less than 0.1 ppb and 0.5 ppb, respectively, due to its low solubility. CONCLUSIONS: By analyzing the ion dissolution concentration, we found that the residual silver ion concentration in vivo was less than 0.1 ppb, which is within the safe range for humans. Therefore, we believe it is safe to use Ag/AgCl electrodes for transcutaneous electrical stimulation.
Keywords: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation, neuromodulation, saline experiment, pigskin experiment, Ag ion dissolution concentration