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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: We try to find out the best weight values of CA125 and HE4 in a discriminant formula classifying ovarian cancer patients from benign patients. We utilize a logistic regression analysis for the early screening system of the ovarian cancer for Korean patients. We compare our system with ROMA (Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm) of Abbot corp. In view of AUC (Area under the ROC curve), sensitivity with 95% of specificity and accuracy are considered. We performed experiments based on the logistic regression analysis separated by the case of pre- and post- menopausal stages and by the stages of progression of…cancer. In our experiments, we can increase about 15.6% points of sensitivity with 95% of specificity, compared to that of ROMA. In premenopausal cases, ROMA shows 93.32% of AUC value and our system shows 97.48% of AUC, 4.1% points higher than ROMA. AUC of the ROMA for premenopausal women was 93.32%, whereas the AUC of our system was 97.48%. Furthermore, the AUC of the ROMA for early-staged ovarian cancer was 91.35%, whereas the AUC of our system was 97.22%, showing that the diagnostic performance of our system was superior over that of the ROMA in Korean patient cases.
Keywords: Risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm, CA125, HE4, tumor marker, ovarian cancer, sensitivity, specificity, epithelial ovarian cancer
Abstract: This study uses a split-Hopkinson bar to investigate the mechanical response and microstructural evolution of Ti-13Zr-13Nb biomedical alloy under dynamic loading. Dynamic compression tests are performed at room temperature (25°C) and 500°C under strain rates of 900 s - 1 , 1900 s - 1 and 2800 s - 1 , respectively. It indicates that the mechanical response of Ti-13Zr-13Nb biomedical alloy is very influenced by strain rate and temperature. The plastic flow stress and strain rate sensitivity increase with the increasing strain rate but decrease with increasing temperature. It reveals that the Ti-13Zr-13Nb alloy fail due to the…intensive localized shearing by fracture observation. Furthermore, TEM observations reveal that the dislocation density increases with an increasing strain rate, but decrease with increasing temperature.
Abstract: A polymerase chain reaction is a test method currently used in almost all process steps of a genetic manipulation experiment. It involves the amplification of the given genetic material targeted by the detection test. In consideration of the graphical user interface development environment or user accessibility, if a PC with the windows operating system or its embedded version can be employed as a host, it will contribute significantly to resource saving, including development-related human resources and time, along with enabling a broad use of the product. In this study, we focus on the low cost implementation of a PCR thermal…cycler for the personal usage. It is aimed to drastically reduce the product development time and maintenance/repair costs. To achieve this, we implement the functions for biochemical process in a local embedded system, and the functions of data management, including the PCR protocol, and user-interface management are implemented on a PC.
Abstract: This study presents a simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly. It can transmit ECG signals of patient around his/her house through Bluetooth to computers in house. ECG signals are analyzed by the computer. If abnormal case of heartbeat is found, the emergency call is automatically dialed. Meanwhile, the determined heartbeat case of ECG signals will be forwarded to patient's MD through internet. Therefore, the patient can do whatever he/she wants around his/her house with our proposed simple cardiac arrhythmias signal analyzer. The proposed consists of five major processing stages: (i) preprocessing stage for enlarging ECG…signals' amplitude and eliminating noises; (ii) ECG signal transmitter/receiver stage, ECG signals are transmitted through Bluetooth to the signal receiver in patient's house; (iii) QRS extraction stage for detecting QRS waveform using the Difference Operation Method (DOM) method; (iv) qualitative features stage for qualitative feature selection on ECG signals; and (v) classification stage for determining patient's heartbeat cases using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. In the experiment, the total classification accuracy (TCA) was approximately 93.19% in average.
Abstract: Current paper focus on Parkinson's patients with autonomic dysfunction and how their interactions between cerebral autoregulation and ventilatory control are affected. The experimental data of dynamic CA assessment from the ANS Laboratory of CCGH was accessed for further processing and analysis. The subjects were classified into the groups of healthy and with Parkinson's disease. Based on the accessed ventilation and CBF data, the percentage changes in ventilation and CBF responses to PETCO2 were examined. To minimize effects of changes in ABP on cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) estimation, cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi ) was calculated, and CBFV-PETCO2 and CVCi…-PETCO2 relationships were quantified by nonlinear logistic regression. The interaction between ventilation responses and CBF autoregulation will be modeled and parameters will be validated.
Keywords: Parkinson's, cerebral autoregulation, cerebral vasomotor reactivity, cerebrovascular conductance index
Abstract: Mobile apps provide diverse services and various convenient functions. This study applied the modified technology acceptance model (MTAM) in information systems research to the use of the mobile hospital registration system in Taiwan. The MTAM posits that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of technology influence users' attitudes toward using technology. Research studies using MTAM have determined information technology experience as a factor in predicting attitude. The objective of this present study is to test the validity of the MTAM model when it is being applied to the mobile registration system. The data was collected from 501 patients in…a Taiwan's medical center. Path analysis results have shown that TAM is an applicable model in examining factors influencing users' attitudes of using the mobile registration system. It can be found that the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use are positively associated with users' attitudes toward using the mobile registration system, and they can improve users' attitudes of using it. In addition, the perceived ease of use is positively associated with the perceived usefulness. As for the personal prior experience, the information technology experience is positively associated with perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use.
Keywords: Hospital information system, mobile technology, technology acceptance model, partial least squares (PLS)
Abstract: With the advent of the era of global high-tech industry and commerce and its associated sedentary lifestyle, opportunities for physical activity are reduced. People's physical fitness and health is deteriorating. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a system that can enhance people's physical fitness and health. However, it is difficult for general physical fitness and healthcare systems to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop a method of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system. The proposed system records all processes of the physical fitness and healthcare system via a…wireless sensor network and the results of the diagnosis and prescription will be generated by fuzzy logic inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.
Abstract: Communication between people with normal hearing and hearing impairment is difficult. Recently, a variety of studies on sign language recognition have presented benefits from the development of information technology. This study presents a sign language recognition system using a data glove composed of 3-axis accelerometers, magnetometers, and gyroscopes. Each data obtained by the data glove is transmitted to a host application (implemented in a Window program on a PC). Next, the data is converted into angle data, and the angle information is displayed on the host application and verified by outputting three-dimensional models to the display. An experiment was performed…with five subjects, three females and two males, and a performance set comprising numbers from one to nine was repeated five times. The system achieves a 99.26% movement detection rate, and approximately 98% recognition rate for each finger's state. The proposed system is expected to be a more portable and useful system when this algorithm is applied to smartphone applications for use in some situations such as in emergencies.
Keywords: Data glove, sign language recognition, inertial sensor, accelerometer
Abstract: Visual fatigue is commonly encountered in modern life. Clinical visual fatigue characteristics caused by 2-D and 3-D animations may be different, but have not been characterized in detail. This study tried to distinguish the differential effects on visual fatigue caused by 2-D and 3-D animations. A total of 23 volunteers were subjected to accommodation and vergence assessments, followed by a 40-min video game program designed to aggravate their asthenopic symptoms. The volunteers were then assessed for accommodation and vergence parameters again and directed to watch a 5-min 3-D video program, and then assessed again for the parameters. The results support…that the 3-D animations caused similar characteristics in vision fatigue parameters in some specific aspects as compared to that caused by 2-D animations. Furthermore, 3-D animations may lead to more exhaustion in both ciliary and extra-ocular muscles, and such differential effects were more evident in the high demand of near vision work. The current results indicated that an arbitrary set of indexes may be promoted in the design of 3-D display or equipments.
Abstract: Correct classification and prediction of tumor cells are essential for microarrays to construct a diagnostic system. Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful optimization algorithm, which has been widely used in many areas. However, the standard DE and most of its variants search in the continuous space, which cannot solve the binary optimizations directly. In this paper, the hybrid framework based on the binary DE algorithm and silhouette filter, is proposed to improve searching ability to classify breast and leukemia cancers in microarray for biomarker discovery. The study is focused to use hybrid DE algorithm for gene selection and silhouette statistics…as a discriminant function to classify multiple tumor types in microarray data. Distance metrics on silhouette statistics have also been discussed for high classification accuracy. Experimental results show that the hybrid method is effective to discriminate breast and leukemia cancer subtypes and find potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis.
Keywords: Gene selection, cancer classification, hybrid differential evolution, silhouette statistics