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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: Computer Tomography (CT) guided percutaneous bone biopsy has been established as a minimally invasive method for the rapidly obtaining samples from osseous lesions for histological examination. With this method, an overall accuracy of 90% can be obtained without a significant radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to develop a navigated sleeve for the Jamshidi needle in order to perform navigated, percutaneous bone biopsies with the help of Iso-C-3D. Utilizing this navigated biopsy needle, the procedure was analyzed for several parameters including precision, total operating time, and level of radiation exposure. By using the Iso-C-3D navigation the total operating…time was 11.7 min (8–14.3) and radiation exposure was 1.6 (0.67–2.12 min). This study demonstrates that navigated percutaneous bone biopsies can be obtained fast and with low radiation exposure. The feasibility of Iso-C-3D navigated bone biopsies is tempered by the requirement a rigidly fixed dynamic reference frame.
Keywords: Navigation, ISO C 3D, CAOS, biopsy, tumor, accuracy
Abstract: Among the recent developments in the field of transdermal drug delivery, iontophoresis has emerged as a very promising tool for this purpose. Various studies have been performed on drug delivery through the skin using electric current. Iontophoresis has thereby been found to be effective in particular in transdermal protein and peptide drug delivery. This article reviews the principle, potential benefits, and applications of drug delivery based on iontophoresis. It focuses furthermore on current research and future trends in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery.
Keywords: Iontophoresis, transdermal drug delivery, iontophoretic systems
Abstract: Objective: To detect post-op molecular changes and inflammatory processes by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in eye segments. To develop DLS parameters which are appropriate for the control of post-op course after ophthalmologic surgery. Methods, design: Three new DLS devices were tested in different post-op clinical settings such as pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), cataract surgery and retinal surgery. In a second step DLS was used to detect molecular changes in the cornea of 6 patients after photo refractive keratectomy (PRK) and 16 patients after photo astigmatic refractive keratectomy (PARK). Results: In PEX-patients cataract surgery changed the DLS signals…of the anterior chamber and the lens in a specific way compared to the pre-op situation. Cataract patients without PEX had more scattering particles post-op and retinal surgery modified the DLS signal of the vitreous. Furthermore it was shown that the length of the corneal scattering vector l correlated with the process of the corneal wound healing after PARK. One and three months after surgery the lengths of the scattering vectors had increased significantly but returned to pre-op values twelve months post-op. Discussion: The post-op transparency of eye segments such as the cornea, the vitreous and the anterior chamber depends primarily on the wound healing mechanisms. DLS seems to be a suitable method to control the corneal recovery after refractive surgery. Conclusions: The length of the scattering vector l correlates well with the wound healing after refractive surgery. However DLS-signals seem to contain information about the molecular composition of tissue too. Therefore further research is needed to refine the interpretation of the DLS signals.
Abstract: Knowledge on the forces acting on a woman's breast and on the mechanical properties of the breast tissues is important for studying the effects of plastic surgery techniques for breast reconstruction as well as for the design of cosmetic breast implants. Surprisingly, there are no data in the literature regarding mechanical loads on the breast tissues during daily or sport activities, and there are no coherent sources of data in regard to mechanical properties of the breast tissues. Accordingly, this paper is aimed at reviewing the mechanics of the normal breast. First, the anatomy of the breast and major aging-related…changes are described. Second, the mechanical characteristics of all tissue components of the breast are detailed. Last, analytical approximations are made in regard to the forces acting on the breast during normal activity, and the respective internal breast forces supported by the suspensory ligaments, pectoralis fascia and ribs are calculated. The data presented in this paper are useful for biomechanical modeling of the breast as well as for evaluating the loads acting on surgical repairs and breast implants.
Abstract: Changes in the behavioral activity of elderly people living alone at home may be an indicator for the assessment of their functional health status. In this paper, we evaluate the characteristics of a pyro-electric infrared detector (PIRD) to identify any section of the room where detector will fail to respond and assess the number of detectors required to identify the movements of the occupant reliably. The experimental results suggest that the PIRD output decreases very sharply from 1 V at 3 m to 0.2 V at 5 m and is below 0.5 V for hand movements at detection angle of…<20° and >50°. Hence, spatial sensitivity of PIRD is non-uniform at different distances for different walking speeds. If a detector is used in a room of dimension half the maximum range of the PIRD, there exist dead points where detection sensitivity is low giving rise to false alarms. Hence, a single detector installed in a room fails to respond to small movements in the extended range. Four detectors at each corner of the room help to increase the sensitivity of the detection whereby even small movements such as reading a book, telephonic conversation etc. can be identified.