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Technology and Health Care is intended to serve as a forum for the presentation of original articles and technical notes, observing rigorous scientific standards. Furthermore, upon invitation, reviews, tutorials, discussion papers and minisymposia are featured.
The following types of contributions and areas are considered:
1. Original articles:
Technology development in medicine: New concepts, procedures and devices associated with the use of technology in medical research and clinical practice are presented to a readership with a widespread background in engineering and/or medicine.
Significance of medical technology and informatics for healthcare: The appropriateness, efficacy and usefulness deriving from the application of engineering methods, devices and informatics in medicine and with respect to public health are discussed.
2. Technical notes:
Short communications on novel technical developments with relevance for clinical medicine.
3. Reviews and tutorials (upon invitation only):
Tutorial and educational articles for persons with a primarily medical background on principles of engineering with particular significance for biomedical applications and vice versa are presented.
4. Minisymposia (upon invitation only):
Under the leadership of a Special Editor, controversial issues relating to healthcare are highlighted and discussed by various authors.
Abstract: The growing number of the elderly in industrialised countries is increasing the pressure on respective health care systems. This is one reason for recent trends in the development and expansion of home health care organisations. With Internet access available to everyone and the advent of wireless technologies, advanced telehomecare is a possibility for a large proportion of the population. In the near future, one of the authors plans to implement a home health care infrastructure…for patients with congestive heart failure and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The system is meant to support regular and ad-hoc measurements of medical parameters in patient homes and transmission of measurement data to the home health care provider. In this paper we look at network technologies that connect sensors and input devices in the patient home to a home health care provider. We consider wireless and Internet technologies from functional and security-related perspectives and arrive at a recommendation for our system. Security and usability aspects of the proposed network infrastructures are explored with special focus on their impact on the patient home.
Abstract: The goal of this study was an assessment of the shoulder and elbow joint passive moments in the sagittal plane for six healthy individuals. Either the shoulder or elbow joints were moved at a constant speed, very slowly throughout a large portion of their range by means of an industrial robot. During the whole process the arm was held fully passively, while the end point force data and the shoulder, elbow and wrist angle data were collected. The…presented method unequivocally reveals a large passive moment adjacent angle dependency in the central angular range, where most everyday actions are performed. It is expected to prove useful in the future work when examining subjects with neuromuscular disorders. Their passive moments may show a fully different pattern than the ones obtained in this study.
Abstract: The desire to develop web-based platforms for remote collaboration among physicians and technologists is becoming a great challenge. In this paper we describe a web-based radiotherapy treatment planning (WBRTP) system to facilitate decentralized radiotherapy services by allowing remote treatment planning and quality assurance (QA) of treatment delivery. Significant prerequisites are digital storage of relevant data as well as efficient and reliable telecommunication system between collaborating units. The system of WBRTP includes video…conferencing, display of medical images (CT scans, dose distributions etc), replication of selected data from a common database, remote treatment planning, evaluation of treatment technique and follow-up of the treated patients. Moreover the system features real-time remote operations in terms of tele-consulting like target volume delineation performed by a team of experts at different and distant units. An appraisal of its possibilities in quality assurance in radiotherapy is also discussed. As a conclusion, a WBRTP system would not only be a medium for communication between experts in oncology but mainly a tool for improving the QA in radiotherapy.
Abstract: To determine the causes and history of atherosclerosis it is necessary to understand the hemodynamic parameters of blood circulation. Hemodynamic parameters play an important role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, especially near bends and bifurcations where the flow separates from the wall. Here the flow is laminar and non-axial with eddies, secondary flow, flow separation and stagnation points. Stenoses are found predominantly in flow separation areas. Therefore, it is important to…separately study the following flow parameters: steady and pulsatile flow, wall elasticity and non-Newtonian flow behavior of blood. A simplified silicon elastic y-model simulating the human carotid artery was used for the analysis of these parameters. This model can be used for numerical studies as well. Flow was visualized at steady flow using dyes and at pulsatile flow with a photoelastic apparatus and a birefringent solution. The local axial velocity at steady and pulsatile flow was determined with a one-component Laser-Doppler-Anemometer (LDA). Pulsatile flow was generated by a piston membrane pump. A glycerin-water solution was used to simulate the Newtonian flow behavior of blood. A DMSO-Separan water solution was used to simulate the non-Newtonian flow behavior. Pulsatile flow creates higher and lower shear rates so called oscillating shear rate compare to steady flow depending on the velocity amplitude. The non-Newtonian fluid showed a markedly different flow behavior than the Newtonian fluid especially in areas of flow separation. Shear gradients were calculated from these velocity measurements using a bicubic spline interpolation. Shear stresses were calculated from these velocity shear gradients and the viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid at these shear gradients. At special areas, high shear stresses > 10 Pa were found. The elasticity of the model wall also influences the flow behavior. The measurements showed that the characteristics of pulsatile flow and the elasticity of the model wall should be observed concomitantly. This paper presents the steady and pulsatile flow with a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid in an elastic model.
Abstract: Long-implanted foreign bodies can provoke sarcoma in several species, although rarely in man. In neoplasia, RNA metabolism is highly active. Several kinds of RNA from 5 species were tested for prevention of foreign-body sarcoma in 8 experiments. Nitrocellulose filters or dialysis bags were the implants used. RNA, usually 1 g/dl, was applied to saturate the filters. They were implanted in groups of 30--50 mice, while concomitant controls received saline-saturated implants. The filters surfaces were 9.8 or…19.6 sq cm with pore diameters (roughness) of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.22 μ. The dialysis bags had 6.3 sq cm surface area and RNA content. Tumour yield was logged weekly. It was compared to that of the controls in each experiment and in the series of trials. Mammalian RNA decreased tumour yield in 9 of 11 trials (1 only at p<0.05), ribosomal RNA (85% reduction) being best. Yeast RNA was inactive. RNA from E.Coli increased tumour yield. Two of three samples of bovine RNase also increased tumour yield, an effect counteracted by admixed RNA. The results would indicate an antitumour effect of mammalian RNA, or a species or concomitant of it, which was irregularly present in the fractions tested, perhaps of ribosomal origin and dialysable.