Abstract: Surveys on investments in environmental protection measures in Swedish industry have so far been made twice by Statistics Sweden: in 1985–86 and 1988–89. The surveys include important and sometimes very difficult questions of subject-matter interest as well as methodological interest. This paper presents the latest survey. It was performed as a sample survey with industrial establishments as sample units, stratified by type of industry and size. Data was collected through a mail questionnaire and a telephone follow-up. High-stressor industry was identified as an important classification.
Abstract: To compare welfare among households, net household income is a widely used indicator. However, this indicator does not take into account differences in household composition and thus in needs. To adjust for these differences equivalence scales are designed by taking into account the main household characteristics which do affect needs. In economic literature a wide range of equivalence scales is being discussed, from one extreme, where no adjustment is made at all, to the other, where per capita income is used as a welfare indicator. There is ample reason to suspect that the choice of an equivalence scale systematically affects…results and the comparability of results from different studies in the field of welfare comparisons. This article illustrates the sensitivity of results with respect to the choice of a particular equivalence scale and proposes a set of criteria by which to choose.
Abstract: Non-response is an increasing rather than a decreasing problem in surveys, but there are also many other deficiencies in them. The non-response rates in Finnish income surveys have been 15–30% on average. Since these values do not go missing randomly, obvious biases exist in estimates. This paper discusses their effects and the opportunities available for adjusting for them presenting statistical methods developed or applied in Finland. Applications to income distribution data are demonstrated.
Abstract: A number of basic concepts and ideas concerning metadata in statistical information systems are presented and discussed. Some experiences from earlier developments in the field of statistical metainformation systems are accounted for. An outline of an architecture for future developments of statistical metainformation systems is given. The architecture is based on the principle that the structure of an information system should reflect the structure of the object system that the information system processes information about. Thus a statistical metainformation system should have a structure reflecting the structure of a statistical survey. Two main sources of survey metadata are identified: survey…design decisions and the survey process itself. Survey metadata should be captured as close to the sources and as automatically as possible. In practice this means that survey metadata should be captured and organized as an automatical side-effect of other tasks during the planning, operation, and evaluation of the survey.